Franklin Chi Meng Tay

Department Chair

  • 34301 Citations
  • 95 h-Index
1984 …2019
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Research Output 1984 2019

2016
10 Citations (Scopus)

Micro-Computed Tomography Assessment of Apical Accessory Canal Morphologies

Xu, T., Tay, F. C. M., Gutmann, J. L., Fan, B., Fan, W., Huang, Z. & Sun, Q., May 1 2016, In : Journal of Endodontics. 42, 5, p. 798-802 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tomography
Debridement
8 Citations (Scopus)

Micro-CT evaluation of apical delta morphologies in human teeth

Gao, X., Tay, F. C. M., Gutmann, J. L., Fan, W., Xu, T. & Fan, B., Nov 7 2016, In : Scientific Reports. 6, 36501.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tooth
Dental Pulp Cavity
Debridement
Root Canal Therapy
Tomography
4 Citations (Scopus)

Mineralogenic characteristics of osteogenic lineage-committed human dental pulp stem cells following their exposure to a discoloration-free calcium aluminosilicate cement

Niu, L. N., Pei, D. D., Morris, M., Jiao, K., Huang, X. Q., Primus, C. M., Ferreira Susin, L., Bergeron, B. E., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Oct 1 2016, In : Dental Materials. 32, 10, p. 1235-1247 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Silicate Cement
Discoloration
Dental Pulp
Aluminosilicates
Stem cells
7 Citations (Scopus)

Occlusal loading and cross-linking effects on dentin collagen degradation in physiological conditions

Turco, G., Frassetto, A., Fontanive, L., Mazzoni, A., Cadenaro, M., Di Lenarda, R., Tay, F. C. M., Pashley, D. H. & Breschi, L., Feb 1 2016, In : Dental Materials. 32, 2, p. 192-199 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mastication
Dentin
Collagen
Degradation
Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide
8 Citations (Scopus)

On the stiffness of demineralized dentin matrices

Ryou, H., Turco, G., Breschi, L., Tay, F. C. M., Pashley, D. H. & Arola, D., Feb 1 2016, In : Dental Materials. 32, 2, p. 161-170 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Collagen
Stiffness
Etching
Acids
19 Citations (Scopus)

Paucity of nanolayering in resin-dentin interfaces of MDP-based adhesives

Tian, F., Zhou, L., Zhang, Z., Niu, L., Zhang, L., Chen, C., Zhou, J., Yang, H., Wang, X., Fu, B., Huang, C., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Jan 1 2016, In : Journal of Dental Research. 95, 4, p. 380-387 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Adhesives
X-Ray Diffraction
Apatites
Periodicity
6 Citations (Scopus)

Revival of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function by water-soluble microfibrous borate glass

Yuan, H., Niu, L. N., Jiao, K., Pei, D. D., Pramanik, C., Li, J. Y., Messer, R. L. W., Kumar, S., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Feb 1 2016, In : Acta biomaterialia. 31, p. 312-325 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Borates
Diphosphonates
Osteoclasts
Osteogenesis
Glass
5 Citations (Scopus)

Selective demineralisation of dentine extrafibrillar minerals—A potential method to eliminate water-wet bonding in the etch-and-rinse technique

Li, B., Zhu, X., Ma, L., Wang, F., Liu, X., Yang, X., Zhou, J., Tan, J., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Sep 1 2016, In : Journal of Dentistry. 52, p. 55-62 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Water
Collagen
Minerals
Air
7 Citations (Scopus)

The effects of ethanol on the size-exclusion characteristics of type i dentin collagen to adhesive resin monomers

Chiba, A., Zhou, J., Nakajima, M., Tan, J., Tagami, J., Scheffel, D. L. S., Hebling, J., Agee, K. A., Breschi, L., Grégoire, G., Jang, S. S., Tay, F. C. M. & Pashley, D. H., Mar 15 2016, In : Acta biomaterialia. 33, p. 235-241 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Collagen
Adhesives
Ethanol
Resins
12 Citations (Scopus)

Translation of a solution-based biomineralization concept into a carrier-based delivery system via the use of expanded-pore mesoporous silica

Luo, X. J., Yang, H. Y., Niu, L. N., Mao, J., Huang, C., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Feb 1 2016, In : Acta biomaterialia. 31, p. 378-387 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Biomineralization
carbopol 940
Silicon Dioxide
Calcium phosphate
Silica
2015
60 Citations (Scopus)

Advances in Dental Materials through Nanotechnology: Facts, Perspectives and Toxicological Aspects

Padovani, G. C., Feitosa, V. P., Sauro, S., Tay, F. C. M., Durán, G., Paula, A. J. & Durán, N., Nov 1 2015, In : Trends in Biotechnology. 33, 11, p. 621-636 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Dental materials
Dental Materials
Nanotechnology
Nanostructures
Nanostructured materials
20 Citations (Scopus)

Biomimetic intrafibrillar mineralization of type i collagen with intermediate precursors-loaded mesoporous carriers

Zhang, W., Luo, X. J., Niu, L. N., Yang, H. Y., Yiu, C. K. Y., Wang, T. D., Zhou, L. Q., Mao, J., Huang, C., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Jun 8 2015, In : Scientific Reports. 5, 11199.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tooth Remineralization
Biomimetics
Silicon Dioxide
Nanoparticles
Amines
30 Citations (Scopus)

Biphasic silica/apatite co-mineralized collagen scaffolds stimulate osteogenesis and inhibit RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis

Jiao, K., Niu, L. N., Li, Q. H., Chen, F. M., Zhao, W., Li, J. J., Chen, J. H., Cutler, C. W., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Jun 1 2015, In : Acta biomaterialia. 19, p. 23-32 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Apatites
Apatite
Scaffolds (biology)
Collagen
Osteogenesis
106 Citations (Scopus)

Bonding of universal adhesives to dentine-Old wine in new bottles?

Chen, C., Niu, L. N., Xie, H., Zhang, Z. Y., Zhou, L. Q., Jiao, K., Chen, J. H., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. R., May 1 2015, In : Journal of Dentistry. 43, 5, p. 525-536 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Wine
Adhesives
Third Molar
Water
34 Citations (Scopus)

Can quaternary ammonium methacrylates inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins?

Tezvergil-Mutluay, A., Agee, K. A., Mazzoni, A., Carvalho, R. M., Carrilho, M., Tersariol, I. L., Nascimento, F. D., Imazato, S., Tjäderhane, L., Breschi, L., Tay, F. C. M. & Pashley, D. H., Feb 1 2015, In : Dental Materials. 31, 2, p. e25-e32

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cathepsin K
Cathepsins
Methacrylates
Dentin
Matrix Metalloproteinases
27 Citations (Scopus)

Coupling of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate to tetragonal zirconia: Effect of pH reaction conditions on coordinate bonding

Xie, H., Tay, F. C. M., Zhang, F., Lu, Y., Shen, S. & Chen, C., Oct 1 2015, In : Dental Materials. 31, 10, p. e218-e225

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zirconia
Shear Strength
Chemical bonds
Thermodynamics
Molecular mechanics
35 Citations (Scopus)

Cytotoxicity and osteogenic potential of silicate calcium cements as potential protective materials for pulpal revascularization

Bortoluzzi, E. A., Niu, L. N., Palani, C. D., El-Awady, A. R., Hammond, B. D., Pei, D. D., Tian, F., Cutler, C. W., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Dec 1 2015, In : Dental Materials. 31, 12, p. 1510-1522 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Silicate Cement
Dental Pulp
Calcium silicate
Cytotoxicity
Stem cells
10 Citations (Scopus)

Effect of chemical interaction on the bonding strengths of self-etching adhesives to deproteinised dentine

Zhou, L., Wang, Y., Yang, H., Guo, J., Tay, F. C. M. & Huang, C., Aug 1 2015, In : Journal of Dentistry. 43, 8, p. 973-980 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Adhesives
X-Ray Diffraction
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Sodium Hypochlorite
11 Citations (Scopus)

Effect of Matrix Metalloproteinase-inhibiting Solutions and Aging Methods on Dentin Bond Strength

Perote, L. C. C. C., Kamozaki, M. B. E. B., Gutierrez, N. C., Tay, F. C. M. & Pucci, C. R., Aug 1 2015, In : The journal of adhesive dentistry. 17, 4, p. 347-352 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Propolis
Composite Resins
Tooth
15 Citations (Scopus)

Effect of polyacrylic acid on dentin protease activities

Ozcan, S., Seseogullari-Dirihan, R., Uctasli, M., Tay, F. R., Pashley, D. H. & Tezvergil-Mutluay, A., Aug 1 2015, In : Dental Materials. 31, 8, p. 901-906 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

carbopol 940
Dentin
Phosphoric acid
Benzalkonium Compounds
Peptide Hydrolases
7 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of acid treatment on dental zirconia: An in vitro study

Xie, H., Shen, S., Qian, M., Zhang, F., Chen, C. & Tay, F. R., Aug 24 2015, In : PloS one. 10, 8, e0136263.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

hydrofluoric acid
Hydrofluoric Acid
acid treatment
in vitro studies
Tooth
9 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of a discoloration-resistant calcium aluminosilicate cement on the viability and proliferation of undifferentiated human dental pulp stem cells

Niu, L. N., Watson, D., Thames, K., Primus, C. M., Bergeron, B. E., Jiao, K., Bortoluzzi, E. A., Cutler, C. W., Chen, J. H., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Nov 30 2015, In : Scientific Reports. 5, 17177.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dental Pulp
Stem Cells
Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement
Tooth Discoloration
Silicate Cement
16 Citations (Scopus)

Efficacy of 3D conforming nickel titanium rotary instruments in eliminating canal wall bacteria from oval-shaped root canals

Bortoluzzi, E. A., Carlon, D., Meghil, M. M., El-Awady, A. R., Niu, L., Bergeron, B. E., Susin, L., Cutler, C. W., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., May 1 2015, In : Journal of Dentistry. 43, 5, p. 597-604 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dental Pulp Cavity
Bacteria
Tooth
Stem Cells
Enterococcus faecalis
19 Citations (Scopus)

Importance of age on the dynamic mechanical behavior of intertubular and peritubular dentin

Ryou, H., Romberg, E., Pashley, D. H., Tay, F. C. M. & Arola, D., Feb 1 2015, In : Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 42, p. 229-242 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dynamic mechanical analysis
Minerals
Elastic moduli
Scanning
Scanning probe microscopy
2 Citations (Scopus)

Microfibrous borate bioactive glass dressing sequesters bone-bound bisphosphonate in the presence of simulated body fluid

Pramanik, C., Wang, T., Ghoshal, S., Niu, L., Newcomb, B. A., Liu, Y., Primus, C. M., Feng, H., Pashley, D. H., Kumar, S. & Tay, F. C. M., Feb 14 2015, In : Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 3, 6, p. 959-963 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bioactive glass
Borates
Body fluids
Diphosphonates
Body Fluids
8 Citations (Scopus)

Norepinephrine regulates condylar bone loss via comorbid factors

Jiao, K., Niu, L., Xu, X., Liu, Y., Li, X., Tay, F. C. M. & Wang, M., Jun 5 2015, In : Journal of Dental Research. 94, 6, p. 813-820 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Norepinephrine
Bone and Bones
Malocclusion
Immobilization
Cartilage
10 Citations (Scopus)

Novel coating of surgical suture confers antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Enterococcus faecalis

Meghil, M. M., Rueggeberg, F., El-Awady, A., Miles, B., Tay, F. C. M., Pashley, D. & Cutler, C. W., Jun 1 2015, In : Journal of Periodontology. 86, 6, p. 788-794 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Porphyromonas gingivalis
Enterococcus faecalis
Sutures
Polyesters
Silk
14 Citations (Scopus)

On the durability of resin-dentin bonds: Identifying the weakest links

Zhang, Z., Beitzel, D., Mutluay, M., Tay, F. C. M., Pashley, D. H. & Arola, D., Sep 1 2015, In : Dental Materials. 31, 9, p. 1109-1118 10 p., 2582.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Fatigue
Adhesives
Durability
Resins
5 Citations (Scopus)

Repair of composites: Effect of laser and different surface treatments

Barcellos, D. C., Miyazaki Santos, V. M., Niu, L. N., Pashley, D. H., Tay, F. C. M. & Pucci, C. R., Jan 1 2015, In : International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives. 59, p. 1-6 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Surface treatment
Silanes
Repair
Diamond
Lasers
86 Citations (Scopus)

Role of dentin MMPs in caries progression and bond stability

Mazzoni, A., Tjäderhane, L., Checchi, V., Di Lenarda, R., Salo, T., Tay, F. C. M., Pashley, D. H. & Breschi, L., Jan 1 2015, In : Journal of Dental Research. 94, 2, p. 241-251 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Dentin
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Collagen
Enzymes
Cathepsins
34 Citations (Scopus)

Water distribution in dentin matrices: Bound vs. unbound water

Agee, K. A., Prakki, A., Abu-Haimed, T., Naguib, G. H., Nawareg, M. A., Tezvergil-Mutluay, A., Scheffel, D. L. S., Chen, C., Jang, S. S., Hwang, H., Brackett, M., Grégoire, G., Tay, F. R., Breschi, L. & Pashley, D. H., Mar 1 2015, In : Dental Materials. 31, 3, p. 205-216 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Water
Humidity
Calcium Sulfate
Atmospheric humidity
17 Citations (Scopus)

β2-adrenergic signal transduction plays a detrimental role in subchondral bone loss of temporomandibular joint in osteoarthritis

Jiao, K., Niu, L. N., Li, Q. H., Ren, G. T., Zhao, C. M., Liu, Y. D., Tay, F. R. & Wang, M. Q., Jul 29 2015, In : Scientific Reports. 5, 12593.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Temporomandibular Joint
Osteoarthritis
Adrenergic Agents
Signal Transduction
Bone and Bones
2014
28 Citations (Scopus)

Ability of new obturation materials to improve the seal of the root canal system: A review

Li, G. H., Niu, L. N., Zhang, W., Olsen, M., De-Deus, G., Eid, A. A., Chen, J. H., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Mar 1 2014, In : Acta biomaterialia. 10, 3, p. 1050-1063 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Dental Pulp Cavity
Canals
Seals
Biocompatible Materials
Biomaterials
106 Citations (Scopus)

Adhesive performance of a multi-mode adhesive system: 1-Year in vitro study

Marchesi, G., Frassetto, A., Mazzoni, A., Apolonio, F., Diolosà, M., Cadenaro, M., Di Lenarda, R., Pashley, D. H., Tay, F. C. M. & Breschi, L., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Dentistry. 42, 5, p. 603-612 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Adhesives
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Artificial Saliva
In Vitro Techniques
16 Citations (Scopus)

Adjunctive application of chlorhexidine and ethanol-wet bonding on durability of bonds to sound and caries-affected dentine

Ekambaram, M., Yiu, C. K. Y., Matinlinna, J. P., King, N. M. & Tay, F. C. M., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Dentistry. 42, 6, p. 709-719 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chlorhexidine
Dentin
Ethanol
Adhesives
Artificial Saliva
6 Citations (Scopus)

Adopting the principles of collagen biomineralization for intrafibrillar infiltration of yttria-stabilized zirconia into three-dimensional collagen scaffolds

Zhou, B., Niu, L. N., Shi, W., Zhang, W., Arola, D. D., Breschi, L., Mao, J., Chen, J. H., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Apr 2 2014, In : Advanced Functional Materials. 24, 13, p. 1895-1903 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Biomineralization
Yttria stabilized zirconia
infiltration
collagens
Scaffolds (biology)
5 Citations (Scopus)

A feasible method to eliminate nanoleakage in dentin hybrid layers

Chen, J. H., Liu, Y., Niu, L. N., Lu, S., Tay, F. C. M. & Gao, Y., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. 16, 5, p. 429-434 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Air Pressure
Dentin
Adhesives
Pressure
Transmission Electron Microscopy
2 Citations (Scopus)

An update on adhesive dentistry

Tay, F. C. M., Apr 1 2014, In : Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995). 35, 4, p. 286 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dental Cements
Ceramics
Dentistry
Adhesives
63 Citations (Scopus)

A review of the bioactivity of hydraulic calcium silicate cements

Niu, L. N., Jiao, K., Wang, T. D., Zhang, W., Camilleri, J., Bergeron, B. E., Feng, H. L., Mao, J., Chen, J. H., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Dentistry. 42, 5, p. 517-533 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Silicate Cement
Apatites
Bone Cements
Biocompatible Materials
Body Fluids
1 Citation (Scopus)

Bioactivity of mineral trioxide aggregate and mechanism of action

Tay, F. C. M., Mar 1 2014, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in Dentistry: From Preparation to Application. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Vol. 9783642551574. p. 61-85 25 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Silicate Cement
Apatites
Bone Cements
Biocompatible Materials
Body Fluids
82 Citations (Scopus)

Biomimetic remineralization of dentin

Niu, L. N., Zhang, W., Pashley, D. H., Breschi, L., Mao, J., Chen, J. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Jan 1 2014, In : Dental Materials. 30, 1, p. 77-96 20 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Biomimetics
Dentin
Collagen
Calcium phosphate
Adhesives
10 Citations (Scopus)

Bonding ability of 4-META self-etching primer used with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to enamel and dentine: Primary vs permanent teeth

Hosoya, Y. & Tay, F. C. M., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Dentistry. 42, 4, p. 425-431 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dentin
Dental Enamel
Tooth
Tensile Strength
Deciduous Tooth
15 Citations (Scopus)

Bonding of resin cement to zirconia with high pressure primer coating

Wang, C., Niu, L. N., Wang, Y. J., Jiao, K., Liu, Y., Zhou, W., Shen, L. J., Fang, M., Li, M., Zhang, X., Tay, F. C. M. & Chen, J. H., Jul 3 2014, In : PLoS One. 9, 7, e101174.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Resin Cements
cement
Air Pressure
coatings
resins
49 Citations (Scopus)

Carbodiimide inactivation of MMPs and effect on dentin bonding

Mazzoni, A., Apolonio, F. M., Saboia, V. P. A., Santi, S., Angeloni, V., Checchi, V., Curci, R., Di Lenarda, R., Tay, F. C. M., Pashley, D. H. & Breschi, L., Mar 1 2014, In : Journal of Dental Research. 93, 3, p. 263-268 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carbodiimides
Dentin
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Adhesives
Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide
4 Citations (Scopus)

Differences in the microstructure and fatigue properties of dentine between residents of North and South America

Ivancik, J., Naranjo, M., Correa, S., Ossa, A., Tay, F. C. M., Pashley, D. H. & Arola, D., Jan 1 2014, In : Archives of Oral Biology. 59, 10, p. 1001-1012 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

South America
Dentin
North America
Fatigue
Tooth
8 Citations (Scopus)

Effect of chlorhexidine and ethanol-wet bonding with a hydrophobic adhesive to intraradicular dentine

Ekambaram, M., Yiu, C. K. Y., Matinlinna, J. P., Chang, J. W. W., Tay, F. C. M. & King, N. M., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Dentistry. 42, 7, p. 872-882 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chlorhexidine
Dentin
Adhesives
Ethanol
Tooth
13 Citations (Scopus)

Effect of flavonoids on the mechanical properties of demineralised dentine

Epasinghe, D. J., Yiu, C. K. Y., Burrow, M. F., Tsoi, J. K. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Dentistry. 42, 9, p. 1178-1184 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tensile Strength
Elastic Modulus
Dentin
Flavonoids
Quercetin
8 Citations (Scopus)

Effect of luting cement and thermomechanical loading on retention of glass fibre posts in root canals

Li, X. J., Zhao, S. J., Niu, L. N., Tay, F. C. M., Jiao, K., Gao, Y. & Chen, J. H., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Dentistry. 42, 1, p. 75-83 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dental Pulp Cavity
Dentin
Cementation
Resin Cements
Glass Ionomer Cements
19 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of adsorbed and templated nanosilver in mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles on inhibition of bacteria colonization of dentin

Fan, W., Wu, D., Tay, F. C. M., Ma, T., Wu, Y. & Fan, B., Jan 1 2014, In : International journal of nanomedicine. 9, p. 5217-5230 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Calcium silicate
Dentin
Nanoparticles
Bacteria
Enterococcus faecalis
14 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of different sonic activation protocols on debridement efficacy in teeth with single-rooted canals

Niu, L. N., Luo, X. J., Li, G. H., Bortoluzzi, E. A., Mao, J., Chen, J. H., Gutmann, J. L., Pashley, D. H. & Tay, F. C. M., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Dentistry. 42, 8, p. 1001-1009 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dental Pulp Cavity
Debridement
Tooth
Root Canal Irrigants
Smear Layer