Robert William Caldwell

Professor - Rehired Retiree

  • 5969 Citations
  • 42 h-Index
1970 …2019
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Research Output 1970 2019

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Article
1999
333 Citations (Scopus)
Pravastatin
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Cholesterol
Simvastatin
Nitric Oxide
2000
60 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of NO donors and synthase agonists on endothelial cell uptake of L-Arg and superoxide production

Ogonowski, A. A., Kaesemeyer, W. H., Jin, L., Ganapathy, V., Leibach, F. H. & Caldwell, R. W., Feb 29 2000, In : American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology. 278, 1 47-1

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nitric Oxide Synthase
Superoxides
Endothelial Cells
Substance P
Amino Acid Transport System y+
52 Citations (Scopus)

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is a site of superoxide synthesis in endothelial cells treated with glyceryl trinitrate

Kaesemeyer, W. H., Ogonowski, A. A., Jin, L., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Jan 1 2000, In : British Journal of Pharmacology. 131, 5, p. 1019-1023 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Nitroglycerin
Superoxides
Endothelial Cells
NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
6 Citations (Scopus)

In situ localization of cholesterol in skeletal muscle by use of a monoclonal antibody

Clarke, M. S. F., Vanderburg, C. R., Bamman, M. M., Caldwell, R. W. & Feeback, D. L., Aug 31 2000, In : Journal of Applied Physiology. 89, 2, p. 731-741 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Skeletal Muscle
Cholesterol
Monoclonal Antibodies
Membranes
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
62 Citations (Scopus)

Role of L-arginine in the vascular actions and development of tolerance to nitroglycerin

Abou-Mohamed, G., Kaesemeyer, W. H., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Jan 1 2000, In : British Journal of Pharmacology. 130, 2, p. 211-218 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nitroglycerin
Blood Vessels
Arginine
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Endothelial Cells
7 Citations (Scopus)

Vascular and endothelial actions of inhibitors of substance P amidation

Abou-Mohamed, G. A., Huang, J., Oldham, C. D., Taylor, T. A., Jin, L., Caldwell, R. B., May, S. W. & Caldwell, R. W., Jun 13 2000, In : Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 35, 6, p. 871-880 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Substance P
Blood Vessels
peptidylamidoglycolate lyase
Nitric Oxide
Endothelial Cells
2001
30 Citations (Scopus)

Endothelial cell dysfunction in a model of oxidative stress

Jin, L., Abou-Mohamed, G., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Aug 9 2001, In : Medical Science Monitor. 7, 4, p. 585-591 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginine
Oxidative Stress
Endothelial Cells
Hyperhomocysteinemia
Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1
2002
50 Citations (Scopus)

The effect of supplemental L-arginine on tolerance development during continuous transdermal nitroglycerin therapy

Parker, J. O., Parker, J. D., Caldwell, R. W., Farrell, B. & Kaesemeyer, W. H., Apr 3 2002, In : Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 39, 7, p. 1199-1203 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nitroglycerin
Arginine
Walking
Capsules
Therapeutics
2003
13 Citations (Scopus)

Estradiol relaxes rat aorta via endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms

Abou-Mohamed, G., Elmarakby, A., Carrier, G. O., Catravas, J. D., Caldwell, R. W. & White, R. E., Aug 11 2003, In : Pharmacology. 69, 1, p. 20-26 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Endothelium
Aorta
Estradiol
Estrogens
Nitroarginine
169 Citations (Scopus)
Blood-Retinal Barrier
Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptors
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Tyrosine
Retina
103 Citations (Scopus)

High glucose-induced tyrosine nitration in endothelial cells: Role of eNOS uncoupling and aldose reductase activation

El-Remessy, A. B., Abou-Mohamed, G., Caldwell, R. W. & Caldwell, R. B., Jul 1 2003, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 44, 7, p. 3135-3143 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aldehyde Reductase
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Tyrosine
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Superoxides
162 Citations (Scopus)

Neuroprotective Effect of(-)Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Neurotoxicity: Involvement of Peroxynitrite

El-Remessy, A. B., Khalil, I. E., Matragoon, S., Abou-Mohamed, G., Tsai, N. J., Roon, P., Caldwell, R. B., Caldwell, R. W., Green, K. & Liou, G. I., Nov 2003, In : American Journal of Pathology. 163, 5, p. 1997-2008 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cannabidiol
Retinal Neurons
Peroxynitrous Acid
Dronabinol
Neuroprotective Agents
2004
43 Citations (Scopus)

Roles of Superoxide, Peroxynitrite, and Protein Kinase C in the Development of Tolerance to Nitroglycerin

Abou-Mohamed, G., Johnson, J. A., Jin, L., El-Remessy, A. B., Do, K., Kaesemeyer, W. H., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Jan 1 2004, In : Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 308, 1, p. 289-299 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Peroxynitrous Acid
Nitroglycerin
Superoxides
Protein Kinase C
Endothelial Cells
2005
25 Citations (Scopus)

Hyperglycemia and reactive oxygen species mediate apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells through Janus kinase 2

Tawfik, A. M., Jin, L., Banes-Berceli, A. K. L., Caldwell, R. B., Ogbi, S., Shirley, A., Barber, D., Catravas, J. D., Stern, D. M., Fulton, D. J., Caldwell, R. W. & Marrero, M. B., Nov 1 2005, In : Vascular Pharmacology. 43, 5, p. 320-326 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Janus Kinase 2
Hyperglycemia
Reactive Oxygen Species
Endothelial Cells
Apoptosis
154 Citations (Scopus)

Inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase activity blocks vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression and neovascularization during ischemic retinopathy

Al-Shabrawey, M., Bartoli, M., El-Remessy, A. B., Platt, D. H., Matragoon, S., Behzadian, M. A., Caldwell, R. W. & Caldwell, R. B., Aug 2005, In : American Journal of Pathology. 167, 2, p. 599-607 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

NADPH Oxidase
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Retinal Neovascularization
Superoxides
Oxidative Stress
45 Citations (Scopus)

Vascular dysfunction of venous bypass conduits is mediated by reactive oxygen species in diabetes: Role of endothelin-1

Ergul, A., Johansen, J. S., Strømhaug, C., Harris, A. K., Hutchinson, J., Tawfik, A., Rahimi, A., Rhim, E., Wells, B., Caldwell, W. W. & Anstadt, M. P., Apr 1 2005, In : Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 313, 1, p. 70-77 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Endothelin-1
Blood Vessels
Reactive Oxygen Species
Diabetic Angiopathies
NADPH Oxidase
2006
46 Citations (Scopus)

Effect of simvastatin on high glucose- and angiotensin II-induced activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in mesangial cells

Banes-Berceli, A. K., Shaw, S., Ma, G., Brands, M., Eaton, D. C., Stern, D. M., Fulton, D., Caldwell, R. W. & Marrero, M. B., Jun 30 2006, In : American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology. 291, 1, p. F116-F121

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Simvastatin
Mesangial Cells
Angiotensin II
Glucose
Phosphorylation
50 Citations (Scopus)
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Reperfusion Injury
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Myocardial Ischemia
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
55 Citations (Scopus)

Simvastatin improves diabetes-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction

Tawfik, H. E., El-Remessy, A. B., Matragoon, S., Ma, G., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Oct 2 2006, In : Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 319, 1, p. 386-395 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Simvastatin
Coronary Vessels
Acetylcholine
Arginine
Oxidative Stress
2007
63 Citations (Scopus)

Homocysteine induces endothelial dysfunction via inhibition of arginine transport

Jin, L., Caldwell, R. B., Li-Masters, T. & Caldwell, R. W., Jun 1 2007, In : Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 58, 2, p. 191-206 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Homocysteine
Arginine
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1
Hyperhomocysteinemia
52 Citations (Scopus)
Electron Transport Complex IV
Protein Kinase C
Reperfusion Injury
Mitochondria
Ischemia
2008
242 Citations (Scopus)

Diabetes-induced coronary vascular dysfunction involves increased arginase activity

Romero, M. J., Platt, D. H., Tawfik, H. E., Labazi, M., El-Remessy, A. B., Bartoli, M., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Jan 1 2008, In : Circulation research. 102, 1, p. 95-102 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginase
Blood Vessels
Endothelial Cells
Glucose
Citrulline
28 Citations (Scopus)
Electron Transport Complex IV
Reperfusion Injury
Reperfusion
Ischemia
Carbon Monoxide
115 Citations (Scopus)

Role of NADPH oxidase and Stat3 in statin-mediated protection against diabetic retinopathy

Al-Shabrawey, M., Bartoli, M., El-Remessy, A. B., Ma, G., Matragoon, S., Lemtalsi, T., Caldwell, R. W. & Caldwell, R. B., Jul 1 2008, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 49, 7, p. 3231-3238 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
NADPH Oxidase
Diabetic Retinopathy
STAT3 Transcription Factor
Blood-Retinal Barrier
2009
45 Citations (Scopus)

Arginase activity mediates retinal inflammation in endotoxin-induced uveitis

Zhang, W., Baban, B., Rojas, M., Tofigh, S., Virmani, S. K., Patel, C., Behzadian, M. A., Romero, M. J., Caldwell, R. W. & Caldwell, R. B., Aug 2009, In : American Journal of Pathology. 175, 2, p. 891-902 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginase
Uveitis
Endotoxins
Inflammation
Lipopolysaccharides
45 Citations (Scopus)

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statin) prevents retinal neovascularization in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy

Bartoli, M., Al-Shabrawey, M., Labazi, M., Ali Behzadian, M., Istanboli, M., El-Remessy, A. B., Caldwell, R. W., Marcus, D. M. & Caldwell, R. B., Dec 1 2009, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 50, 10, p. 4934-4940 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Retinal Neovascularization
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Oxygen
fluvastatin
Superoxides
25 Citations (Scopus)

NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent regulation of CCL2 production during retinal inflammation

Zhang, W., Rojas, M., Lilly, B., Tsai, N. T., Lemtalsi, T., Liou, G. I., Caldwell, R. W. & Caldwell, R. B., Dec 1 2009, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 50, 6, p. 3033-3040 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

NADPH Oxidase
Inflammation
Retinal Vessels
Uveitis
Phosphorylation
11 Citations (Scopus)

Protective effects of the carotenoid zeaxanthin in experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

Chamberlain, S. M., Hall, J. D., Patel, J., Lee, J. R., Marcus, D. M., Sridhar, S., Romero Lucas, M. J., Labazi, M., Caldwell, R. W. & Bartoli, M., Jul 1 2009, In : Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 54, 7, p. 1460-1464 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carotenoids
Oxidative Stress
Liver Cirrhosis
Liver
Inflammation
2010
24 Citations (Scopus)

Acute activation of eNOS by statins involves scavenger receptor-B1, G protein subunit Gi, phospholipase C and calcium influx

Datar, R., Kaesemeyer, W. H., Chandra, S., Fulton, D. J. & Caldwell, R. W., Aug 1 2010, In : British Journal of Pharmacology. 160, 7, p. 1765-1772 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gi-Go GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Scavenger Receptors
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Type C Phospholipases
41 Citations (Scopus)

Novel mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes

Yang, G., Lucas, R., Caldwell, R., Yao, L., Romero, M. & Caldwell, R., Jan 1 2010, In : Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 1, 2, p. 59-63 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Diabetes Mellitus
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Vascular Diseases
Morbidity
Mortality
37 Citations (Scopus)

p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) increases arginase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in corpora cavernosa from angiotensin-II-treated mice

Toque, H. A., Romero, M. J., Tostes, R. C., Shatanawi, A., Chandra, S., Carneiro, Z. N., Inscho, E. W., Webb, R. C., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Dec 2010, In : Journal of Sexual Medicine. 7, 12, p. 3857-3867 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginase
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Angiotensin II
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Blood Pressure
58 Citations (Scopus)

Peroxynitrite mediates diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction: possible role of Rho kinase activation.

El-Remessy, A. B., Tawfik, H. E. S., Matragoon, S., Pillai, B., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Jan 1 2010, In : Experimental Diabetes Research. 2010, 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

rho-Associated Kinases
Peroxynitrous Acid
Lipid Peroxides
Vasodilation
Biological Availability
39 Citations (Scopus)

Role of IL-6 in angiotensin II-induced retinal vascular inflammation

Rojas, M., Zhang, W., Lee, D. L., Romero, M. J., Nguyen, D. T., Al-Shabrawey, M., Tsai, N. T., Liou, G. I., Brands, M. W., Caldwell, R. W. & Caldwell, R. B., Mar 1 2010, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 51, 3, p. 1709-1718 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Retinal Vessels
Angiotensin II
Interleukin-6
Inflammation
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
2011
85 Citations (Scopus)
Arginase
rho-Associated Kinases
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Angiotensin II
Blood Vessels
36 Citations (Scopus)

Arginase 2 deletion reduces Neuro-Glial injury and improves retinal function in a model of Retinopathy of prematurity

Narayanan, S. P., Suwanpradid, J., Saul, A., Xu, Z., Still, A., Caldwell, R. W. & Caldwell, R. B., Jul 27 2011, In : PloS one. 6, 7, e22460.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

premature birth
Arginase
retinal diseases
arginase
Retinopathy of Prematurity
45 Citations (Scopus)

Arginase II deletion increases corpora cavernosa relaxation in diabetic mice

Toque, H. A., Tostes, R. C., Yao, L., Xu, Z., Webb, R. C., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Mar 2011, In : Journal of Sexual Medicine. 8, 3, p. 722-733 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginase
Knockout Mice
Endothelium
Erectile Dysfunction
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus
67 Citations (Scopus)

Calpain mediates pulmonary vascular remodeling in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension, and its inhibition attenuates pathologic features of disease

Ma, W., Han, W., Greer, P. A., Tuder, R. M., Toque, H. A., Wang, K. K. W., Caldwell, R. W. & Su, Y., Nov 1 2011, In : Journal of Clinical Investigation. 121, 11, p. 4548-4566 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Calpain
Pulmonary Hypertension
Rodentia
Lung
Epidermal Growth Factor
15 Citations (Scopus)
Arginase
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Streptozocin
Erectile Dysfunction
Endothelium
16 Citations (Scopus)

Hyperoxia therapy of pre-proliferative ischemic retinopathy in a mouse model

Zhang, W., Yokota, H., Xu, Z., Narayanan, S. P., Yancey, L., Yoshida, A., Marcus, D. M., Caldwell, R. W., Caldwell, R. B. & Brooks, S. E., Aug 1 2011, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 52, 9, p. 6384-6395 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hyperoxia
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Pathologic Neovascularization
Astrocytes
Physiologic Neovascularization
50 Citations (Scopus)

Neuroprotection from retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury by NOX2 NADPH oxidase deletion

Yokota, H., Narayanan, S. P., Zhang, W., Liu, H., Rojas, M., Xu, Z., Lemtalsi, T., Nagaoka, T., Yoshida, A., Brooks, S. E., Caldwell, R. W. & Caldwell, R. B., Oct 1 2011, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 52, 11, p. 8123-8131 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

NADPH Oxidase
Reperfusion Injury
Reperfusion
Ischemia
Retina
52 Citations (Scopus)

The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation in homocysteine-induced death of retinal ganglion cells

Ganapathy, P. S., White, R. E., Ha, Y., Renee Bozard, B., McNeil, P. L., Caldwell, R. W., Kumar, S., Black, S. M. & Smith, S. B., Jul 1 2011, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 52, 8, p. 5515-5524 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Retinal Ganglion Cells
Homocysteine
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors
D-Aspartic Acid
Ganglia
42 Citations (Scopus)

Tissue-intrinsic dysfunction of circadian clock confers transplant arteriosclerosis

Cheng, B., Anea, C. B., Yao, L., Chen, F., Patel, V., Merloiu, A., Pati, P., Caldwell, R. W., Fulton, D. J. & Rudic, R. D., Oct 11 2011, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108, 41, p. 17147-17152 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Circadian Clocks
Arteriosclerosis
Transplants
Organ Transplantation
Vascular Grafting
2012
59 Citations (Scopus)

Diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction involves arginase

Romero, M. J., Iddings, J. A., Platt, D. H., Irfan Ali, M., Cederbaum, S. D., Stepp, D. W., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Jan 1 2012, In : American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 302, 1, p. H159-H166

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginase
Blood Vessels
Fibrosis
Endothelial Cells
Vasodilation
46 Citations (Scopus)

Increased superoxide and endothelial NO synthase uncoupling in blood vessels of Bmal1-knockout mice

Anea, C. B., Cheng, B., Sharma, S., Kumar, S., Caldwell, R. W., Yao, L., Ali, M. I., Merloiu, A. M., Stepp, D. W., Black, S. M., Fulton, D. J. R. & Rudic, R. D., Oct 12 2012, In : Circulation research. 111, 9, p. 1157-1165 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Circadian Clocks
Knockout Mice
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Superoxides
Blood Vessels
95 Citations (Scopus)

Oxidative species increase arginase activity in endothelial cells through the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway

Chandra, S., Romero, M. J., Shatanawi, A., Alkilany, A. M., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Jan 1 2012, In : British Journal of Pharmacology. 165, 2, p. 506-519 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginase
rho-Associated Kinases
Endothelial Cells
Peroxynitrous Acid
Small Interfering RNA
33 Citations (Scopus)

Protein kinase C-α and arginase I mediate pneumolysin-induced pulmonary endothelial hyperpermeability

Lucas, R., Yang, G., Gorshkov, B. A., Zemskov, E. A., Sridhar, S., Siddaramappa, U. N., Jezierska-Drutel, A., Alieva, I. B., Leustik, M., Hossain, H., Fischer, B., Catravas, J. D., Verin, A. D., Pittet, J. F., Caldwell, R. B., Mitchell, T. J., Cederbaum, S. D., Fulton, D. J., Matthay, M. A., Caldwell, R. W. & 2 others, Romero Lucas, M. J. & Chakraborty, T., Oct 1 2012, In : American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology. 47, 4, p. 445-453 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginase
Protein Kinase C
Lung
Endothelial cells
Endothelial Cells
52 Citations (Scopus)

Toxicity and cellular uptake of gold nanorods in vascular endothelium and smooth muscles of isolated rat blood vessel: Importance of surface modification

Alkilany, A. M., Shatanawi, A., Kurtz, T., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Apr 23 2012, In : Small. 8, 8, p. 1270-1278 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nanotubes
Vascular Endothelium
Blood vessels
Nanorods
Vascular Smooth Muscle
2013
28 Citations (Scopus)
Arginase
rho-Associated Kinases
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Blood Vessels
Nitrergic Neurons
19 Citations (Scopus)

Akita spontaneously type 1 diabetic mice exhibit elevated vascular arginase and impaired vascular endothelial and nitrergic function

Toque, H. A., Nunes, K. P., Yao, L., Xu, Z., Kondrikov, D., Su, Y., Webb, R. C., Caldwell, R. B. & Caldwell, R. W., Jan 1 2013, In : PloS one. 8, 8, p. e72277

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginase
arginase
blood vessels
Blood Vessels
Medical problems
8 Citations (Scopus)

Arginase 1: An unexpected mediator of pulmonary capillary barrier dysfunction in models of acute lung injury

Lucas, R., Czikora, I., Sridhar, S., Zemskov, E. A., Oseghale, A., Circo, S., Cederbaum, S. D., Chakraborty, T., Fulton, D. J., Caldwell, R. W. & Romero Lucas, M. J., Sep 16 2013, In : Frontiers in immunology. 4, AUG, Article 228.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Arginase
Acute Lung Injury
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Bacterial Toxins
Lung