Project: Research project

Project Details


The major long-term objective of this work is to provide data and knowledge
that can be used to maximize the beneficial effects of fluoride and
minimize the frequency and degree of unwanted side effects. Previous
studies supported by this grant have shown that the levels of fluoride in
the oral fluids and the developing enamel are directly related to plasma
fluoride levels. Thus, the development and severity of dental fluorosis
and perhaps the cariostatic effect of the ion are dependent on the
quantitative aspects of fluoride metabolism which determine systemic
fluoride levels. Several studies of factors that may influence plasma and
other tissue fluoride levels are proposed for the next grant period. The
only environmental variable taken into account for the determination of the
appropriate water fluoride level for a community is the average regional
temperature. One of the proposed studies will further examine the effects
of the level of water intake on the balance and tissue levels of fluoride
and the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. The results of this
study will also be relevant to the fluoridation of water supplies for the
prevention of dental caries. Another study will examine the balance,
tissue levels and pharmacokinetics of fluoride and the prevalence and
severity of dental fluorosis in diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
These diseases are associated with high levels of urine output and water
intake (therefore fluoride intake) and affect over 12 million U.S.
citizens. There is good evidence that the urinary excretion and balance of
fluoride are affected by the composition of the diet. These effects will
be further examined in chronic feeding studies with rats involving four
different grains. Another study with human volunteers will examine the
effects of diets that tend to alkalinize or acidify the urine on the
pharmacokinetics of fluoride. The results of studies done in the 1940s
indicated that the fluoride levels of sweat and urine were similar and that
fluoride excretion in sweat was quantitatively important under hot and
moist conditions. Using modern analytical techniques, it has been
determined that sweat fluoride levels are at least an order of magnitude
lower than those of urine so it appears unlikely that there are any
conditions under which sweat is an important route for fluoride excretion.
Two of the proposed studies will examine this matter.
StatusNot started


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