? DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate world-wide and represents a major risk factor for both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In diet-induced obesity (DIO), the most common form of human obesity, adipose tissue expands predominately by hypertrophy of pre-existing adipocytes. Although conversion of preadipocytes to adipocytes occurs in DIO, it is insufficient to match caloric consumption. Over time, adipocytes enlarge beyond their physiological limit and become mechanically stressed, inflamed, and insulin resistant, thus contributing to cardiometabolic disease. The causes and consequences of this block in efficient adipogenic differentiation during DIO are unclear. We present novel evidence that expression of histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9), an endogenous repressor of adipogenic differentiation, is markedly upregulated in adipose tissues during DIO, in conjunction with impaired adipogenic differentiation. Genetic ablation of HDAC9 alleviates the block in adipogenic differentiation and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, ablation of HDAC9 stimulates thermogenic beige adipocytes, thus improving energy balance and preventing ectopic lipid deposition. HDAC9 gene deletion also favorably impacts perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and diminishes atherosclerosis in LDLr knockout mice. We hypothesize that HDAC9 acts as a molecular brake on adipogenic differentiation during DIO, thus contributing to insulin resistance and accelerated atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we propose three specific aims: Aim 1 will identify the epigenetic mechanisms leading to aberrant HDAC9 expression during DIO, focusing on the histone methyltransferase EZH2. Our preliminary data suggest that EZH2 fails to silence the HDAC9 promoter during DIO, thus contributing to impaired adipogenic differentiation. In Aim 2, we will determine whether adipocyte-specific HDAC9 gene deletion improves adipogenic differentiation, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during DIO using a novel floxed mouse created for this application. In Aim 3, we will determine whether adipocyte-specific HDAC9 gene deletion is sufficient to attenuate atherosclerosis in LDLr knockout mice in the setting of DIO. Using a novel PVAT transplantation model developed in our lab, we will also determine whether deletion of HDAC9 in PVAT locally modulates the development of atherosclerosis. The proposed studies will provide novel insight into the role of HDAC9 in adipose tissue biology and atherosclerosis and may also form the basis for development of selective HDAC9 blocking agents to counter DIO.