A ketogenic diet in rodents elicits improved mitochondrial adaptations in response to resistance exercise training compared to an isocaloric western diet

Hayden W. Hyatt, Wesley C. Kephart, A. Maleah Holland, Petey Mumford, C. Brooks Mobley, Ryan P. Lowery, Michael D. Roberts, Jacob M. Wilson, Andreas N. Kavazis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2% protein, 42.7% CHO, 42.0% fat, n = 16) for 6 weeks. During these 6 weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, n = 8 per diet group) or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, n = 8 per diet group). Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. Results: In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher (p < 0.05) in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher (p < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1a mRNA expression were higher (p < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. Conclusion: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number533
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Volume7
Issue numberNOV
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 8 2016

Fingerprint

Ketogenic Diet
Resistance Training
Rodentia
Exercise
Diet
Skeletal Muscle
Fats
Running
Sprague Dawley Rats
Weight Loss
Mitochondria
Proteins
Oxidative Stress
Western Diet
Gene Expression
Messenger RNA
Enzymes

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Exercise
  • Ketogenic diets
  • Mitochondria
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

A ketogenic diet in rodents elicits improved mitochondrial adaptations in response to resistance exercise training compared to an isocaloric western diet. / Hyatt, Hayden W.; Kephart, Wesley C.; Holland, A. Maleah; Mumford, Petey; Brooks Mobley, C.; Lowery, Ryan P.; Roberts, Michael D.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Kavazis, Andreas N.

In: Frontiers in Physiology, Vol. 7, No. NOV, 533, 08.11.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hyatt, Hayden W. ; Kephart, Wesley C. ; Holland, A. Maleah ; Mumford, Petey ; Brooks Mobley, C. ; Lowery, Ryan P. ; Roberts, Michael D. ; Wilson, Jacob M. ; Kavazis, Andreas N. / A ketogenic diet in rodents elicits improved mitochondrial adaptations in response to resistance exercise training compared to an isocaloric western diet. In: Frontiers in Physiology. 2016 ; Vol. 7, No. NOV.
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abstract = "Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2{\%} protein, 10.3{\%} CHO, 69.5{\%} fat, n = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2{\%} protein, 42.7{\%} CHO, 42.0{\%} fat, n = 16) for 6 weeks. During these 6 weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, n = 8 per diet group) or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, n = 8 per diet group). Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. Results: In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher (p < 0.05) in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher (p < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1a mRNA expression were higher (p < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. Conclusion: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.",
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T1 - A ketogenic diet in rodents elicits improved mitochondrial adaptations in response to resistance exercise training compared to an isocaloric western diet

AU - Hyatt, Hayden W.

AU - Kephart, Wesley C.

AU - Holland, A. Maleah

AU - Mumford, Petey

AU - Brooks Mobley, C.

AU - Lowery, Ryan P.

AU - Roberts, Michael D.

AU - Wilson, Jacob M.

AU - Kavazis, Andreas N.

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N2 - Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2% protein, 42.7% CHO, 42.0% fat, n = 16) for 6 weeks. During these 6 weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, n = 8 per diet group) or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, n = 8 per diet group). Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. Results: In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher (p < 0.05) in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher (p < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1a mRNA expression were higher (p < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. Conclusion: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.

AB - Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2% protein, 42.7% CHO, 42.0% fat, n = 16) for 6 weeks. During these 6 weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, n = 8 per diet group) or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, n = 8 per diet group). Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. Results: In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher (p < 0.05) in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher (p < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1a mRNA expression were higher (p < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. Conclusion: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.

KW - Antioxidants

KW - Exercise

KW - Ketogenic diets

KW - Mitochondria

KW - Oxidative stress

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