A putative low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet elicits mild nutritional ketosis but does not impair the acute or chronic hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise in rodents

Michael D. Roberts, Angelia Maleah Holland, Wesley C. Kephart, C. Brooks Mobley, Petey W. Mumford, Ryan P. Lowery, Carlton D. Fox, Anna E. McCloskey, Joshua J. Shake, Paulo Mesquita, Romil K. Patel, Jeffrey S. Martin, Kaelin C. Young, Andreas N. Kavazis, Jacob M. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We examined whether acute and/or chronic skeletal muscle anabolism is impaired with a low-carbohydrate diet formulated to elicit ketosis (LCKD) vs. a mixed macronutrient Western diet (WD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 wk of age, 300-325 g) were provided isoenergetic amounts of a LCKD or a WD for 6 wk. In AIM 1, basal serum and gastrocnemius assessments were performed. In AIM 2, rats were resistance exercised for one bout and were euthanized 90-270 min following exercise for gastrocnemius analyses. In AIM 3, rats voluntarily exercised daily with resistance-loaded running wheels, and hind limb muscles were analyzed for hypertrophy markers at the end of the 6-wk protocol. In AIM 1, basal levels of gastrocnemius phosphorylated (p)-rps6, p-4EBP1, and p-AMPKα were similar between diets, although serum insulin (P < 0.01), serum glucose (P < 0.001), and several essential amino acid levels (P < 0.05) were lower in LCKD-fed rats. In AIM 2, LCKD-and WD-fed rats exhibited increased postexercise muscle protein synthesis levels (P < 0.0125), but no diet effect was observed (P = 0.59). In AIM 3, chronically exercise-Trained LCKD-and WD-fed rats presented similar increases in relative hind limb muscle masses compared with their sedentary counterparts (12-24%, P < 0.05), but there was no between-diet effects. Importantly, the LCKD induced "mild" nutritional ketosis, as the LCKD-fed rats in AIM 2 exhibited ∼1.5-fold greater serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels relative to WD-fed rats (diet effect P = 0.003). This study demonstrates that the tested LCKD in rodents, while only eliciting mild nutritional ketosis, does not impair the acute or chronic skeletal muscle hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1173-1185
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Volume120
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Ketogenic Diet
Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet
Ketosis
Rodentia
Diet
Serum
Skeletal Muscle
Extremities
Hydroxybutyrates
Muscles
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Essential Amino Acids
Muscle Proteins
Running
Hypertrophy
Sprague Dawley Rats
Western Diet
Insulin
Glucose

Keywords

  • AMPK
  • Low-Carbohydrate Diets
  • Muscle Hypertrophy
  • Muscle Protein Synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

A putative low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet elicits mild nutritional ketosis but does not impair the acute or chronic hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise in rodents. / Roberts, Michael D.; Holland, Angelia Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C.; Brooks Mobley, C.; Mumford, Petey W.; Lowery, Ryan P.; Fox, Carlton D.; McCloskey, Anna E.; Shake, Joshua J.; Mesquita, Paulo; Patel, Romil K.; Martin, Jeffrey S.; Young, Kaelin C.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Wilson, Jacob M.

In: Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 120, No. 10, 15.05.2016, p. 1173-1185.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Roberts, MD, Holland, AM, Kephart, WC, Brooks Mobley, C, Mumford, PW, Lowery, RP, Fox, CD, McCloskey, AE, Shake, JJ, Mesquita, P, Patel, RK, Martin, JS, Young, KC, Kavazis, AN & Wilson, JM 2016, 'A putative low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet elicits mild nutritional ketosis but does not impair the acute or chronic hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise in rodents', Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 120, no. 10, pp. 1173-1185. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00837.2015
Roberts, Michael D. ; Holland, Angelia Maleah ; Kephart, Wesley C. ; Brooks Mobley, C. ; Mumford, Petey W. ; Lowery, Ryan P. ; Fox, Carlton D. ; McCloskey, Anna E. ; Shake, Joshua J. ; Mesquita, Paulo ; Patel, Romil K. ; Martin, Jeffrey S. ; Young, Kaelin C. ; Kavazis, Andreas N. ; Wilson, Jacob M. / A putative low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet elicits mild nutritional ketosis but does not impair the acute or chronic hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise in rodents. In: Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016 ; Vol. 120, No. 10. pp. 1173-1185.
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AU - Brooks Mobley, C.

AU - Mumford, Petey W.

AU - Lowery, Ryan P.

AU - Fox, Carlton D.

AU - McCloskey, Anna E.

AU - Shake, Joshua J.

AU - Mesquita, Paulo

AU - Patel, Romil K.

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N2 - We examined whether acute and/or chronic skeletal muscle anabolism is impaired with a low-carbohydrate diet formulated to elicit ketosis (LCKD) vs. a mixed macronutrient Western diet (WD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 wk of age, 300-325 g) were provided isoenergetic amounts of a LCKD or a WD for 6 wk. In AIM 1, basal serum and gastrocnemius assessments were performed. In AIM 2, rats were resistance exercised for one bout and were euthanized 90-270 min following exercise for gastrocnemius analyses. In AIM 3, rats voluntarily exercised daily with resistance-loaded running wheels, and hind limb muscles were analyzed for hypertrophy markers at the end of the 6-wk protocol. In AIM 1, basal levels of gastrocnemius phosphorylated (p)-rps6, p-4EBP1, and p-AMPKα were similar between diets, although serum insulin (P < 0.01), serum glucose (P < 0.001), and several essential amino acid levels (P < 0.05) were lower in LCKD-fed rats. In AIM 2, LCKD-and WD-fed rats exhibited increased postexercise muscle protein synthesis levels (P < 0.0125), but no diet effect was observed (P = 0.59). In AIM 3, chronically exercise-Trained LCKD-and WD-fed rats presented similar increases in relative hind limb muscle masses compared with their sedentary counterparts (12-24%, P < 0.05), but there was no between-diet effects. Importantly, the LCKD induced "mild" nutritional ketosis, as the LCKD-fed rats in AIM 2 exhibited ∼1.5-fold greater serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels relative to WD-fed rats (diet effect P = 0.003). This study demonstrates that the tested LCKD in rodents, while only eliciting mild nutritional ketosis, does not impair the acute or chronic skeletal muscle hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise.

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