A Tale of Two Fimbriae: How Invasion of Dendritic Cells by Porphyromonas gingivalis Disrupts DC Maturation and Depolarizes the T-Cell-Mediated Immune Response

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a unique pathogen implicated in severe forms of periodontitis (PD), a disease that affects around 50% of the US population. P. gingivalis is equipped with a plethora of virulence factors that it uses to exploit its environment and survive. These include distinct fimbrial adhesins that enable it to bind to other microbes, colonize inflamed tissues, acquire nutrients, and invade cells of the stroma and immune system. Most notable for this review is its ability to invade dendritic cells (DCs), which bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems. This invasion process is tightly linked to the bridging functions of resultant DCs, in that it can disable (or stimulate) the maturation function of DCs and cytokines that are secreted. Maturation molecules (e.g., MHCII, CD80/CD86, CD40) and inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1b, TNFa, IL-6) are essential signals for antigen presentation and for proliferation of effector T-cells such as Th17 cells. In this regard, the ability of P. gingivalis to coordinately regulate its expression of major (fimA) and minor (mfa-1) fimbriae under different environmental influences becomes highly relevant. This review will, therefore, focus on the immunoregulatory role of P. gingivalis fimbriae in the invasion of DCs, intracellular signaling, and functional outcomes such as alveolar bone loss and immune senescence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number328
JournalPathogens
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Keywords

  • dendritic cells
  • immunology
  • periodontitis
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • T-cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Molecular Biology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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