Background A definitive consensus on the standardization of practice of a routine repeat head CT (RHCT) scan in patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage is lacking. We hypothesized that in examinable patients without neurologic deterioration, RHCT scan does not lead to neurosurgical intervention (craniotomy/craniectomy). Study Design This was a 3-year prospective cohort analysis of patients aged 18 years and older, without antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, presenting to our level 1 trauma center with intracranial hemorrhage on initial head CT and a follow-up RHCT. Neurosurgical intervention was defined by craniotomy/craniectomy. Neurologic deterioration was defined as altered mental status, focal neurologic deficits, and/or pupillary changes. Results A total of 1,129 patients were included. Routine RHCT was performed in 1,099 patients. The progression rate was 19.7% (216 of 1,099), with subsequent neurosurgical intervention in 4 patients. Four patients had an abnormal neurologic examination, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of ≤8 requiring intubation. Thirty patients had an RHCT secondary to neurologic deterioration; 53% (16 of 30) had progression on RHCT, of which 75% (12 of 16) required neurosurgical intervention. There was an association between deterioration in neurologic examination and need for neurosurgical intervention (odds ratio 3.98; 95% CI 1.7 to 9.1). The negative predictive value of a deteriorating neurologic examination in predicting the need for neurosurgical intervention was 100% in patients with GCS > 8. Conclusions Routine repeat head CT scan is not warranted in patients with normal neurologic examination. Routine repeat head CT scan does not supplement the need for neurologic examination for determining management in patients with traumatic brain injury.
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