Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a well-described complication of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. As the immune system recovers, an inappropriate inflammatory response often occurs that causes significant disease. It is most commonly seen in patients naïve to therapy with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts <100 cells/cmm and usually presents as a flare of mycobacterial, cytomegalovirus, or herpes zoster infections. Less commonly, this syndrome occurs in response to noninfectious triggers and results in autoimmune or malignant disease. Here we present the first case of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis associated with varicella zoster virus and IRIS in an adolescent with perinatally acquired HIV and hepatitis C virus infections. Our patient was not naïve to therapy but was starting a new regimen of therapy because of virologic failure and had a relatively high CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. This case report indicates that IRIS remains a concern after initiation of a new highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in HIV-infected patients with high viral loads, even in the presence of CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts >100 cells/cmm. It may present as infectious, malignant, or autoimmune conditions including poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.
- Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health