The level of adult hemoglobin (Hb A, Hb S, Hb C, Hb E) was determined in cord blood samples of 66 Black babies (41 with four α-globin genes; 25 with two α-globin genes) with Hb A, of 51 SS, 7 CC, and 6 EE babies, of 359 babies from Mediterranean countries, and 197 babies from Japan and China. Methodology involved high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, which are considered most accurate because of a complete separation of Hb F (or γ chians) and the adult hemoglobins (or β(A) or β(X) chains). The presence of an α2-thalassemia homozygosity (-α/-α versus αα/αα) did not affect the average Hb A level. The levels of Hb S and Hb E in homozygous Hb S or Hb E babies were about one-third lower than the Hb A of the normal baby, while that of Hb C in homozygous Hb C babies was not decreased. The average level of Hb A in Chinese (50 babies) and Japanese (147 babies) was about 16.0%, which was significantly lower than the average level of 19.0% in newborns of Italian (221 babies), Yugoslavian (68 babies), and Turkish (70 babies) origin.
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