Andrographis paniculata elicits anti-invasion activities by suppressing TM4SF3 gene expression and by anoikis-sensitization in esophageal cancer cells

Grace Gar Lee Yue, Julia Kin Ming Lee, Lin Li, Kar Man Chan, Eric Chun Wai Wong, Judy Yuet Wah Chan, Kwok Pui Fung, Vivian Wai Yan Lui, Philip Wai Yan Chiu, Clara Bik San Lau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cancer in male causing death worldwide. It is usually diagnosed at advanced stage with high postoperative recurrence and systemic metastasis, which leads to poor prognosis. The potential inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on metastasis of esophageal cancer has drawn researchers' great attention. In the present study, the anti-invasion activities of Andrographis paniculata (AP) have been evaluated in two esophageal cancer cell lines, EC-109 and KYSE-520, as well as human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). The anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of AP were also evaluated in human esophageal xenograft-bearing mouse models. Our results demonstrated for the first time that aqueous extract of AP inhibited the motility and invasion of esophageal cancer cells, which is the initial step of metastasis, without cytotoxicity. Anoikis resistance has also been reversed in AP-treated cancer cells. Besides, the expression of metastasis-related gene TM4SF3 in EC-109 cells was significantly decreased in AP extract-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic efficacies in subcutaneous and intraperitoneal esophageal xenograft-bearing mice were demonstrated after oral administration of AP aqueous extract for 3 weeks. Last but not least, the active component, isoandrographolide, responsible for the anti-migratory activity was firstly revealed here. In conclusion, the AP aqueous extract exerted inhibitory activities on the migration and anoikis resistance of esophageal cancer cells EC-109 and KYSE-520, as well as suppressed the proliferation and motility of endothelial cells. Combining the mentioned effects may account for the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of AP aqueous extract in xenograft-bearing mice. The findings in the present study further enhance the understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of the herb AP, which may lead to clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3570-3587
Number of pages18
JournalAmerican Journal of Cancer Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Andrographis paniculata
  • Anoikis
  • Esophageal cancer
  • Isoandrographolide
  • Metastasis
  • TM4SF3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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