Neovascularization in chronically ischemic adult cardiac and skeletal muscle results from the processes of angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and vasculogenesis. Therapeutic angiogenesis describes an emerging field of cardiovascular medicine whereby new blood vessels are induced to grow to supply oxygen and nutrients to cardiac or skeletal muscle rendered ischemic as a result of progressive atherosclerosis. Various techniques have been utilized to promote new blood vessel growth in the heart and extremities, including mechanical means such as surgical or percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization, angiogenic growth factor therapies involving members of the vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor families, and more recently, cellular-based therapies using stem cells known as endothelial progenitor cells or angioblasts. The following review discusses each of these treatment strategies in detail including both preclinical and clinical data for their use in peripheral arterial and coronary artery disease.
- Growth factors
- Stem cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine