Antisaccade-related brain activation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A pilot study

Nicolette F. Schwarz, Cynthia E. Krafft, Lingxi Chi, Abby L. Weinberger, David J. Schaeffer, Jordan E. Pierce, Amanda L. Rodrigue, Celestine F. Williams, Caroline H. DiBattisto, Bernard L. Maria, Catherine L. Davis, Jennifer E. McDowell

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Abstract

While antisaccade paradigms invoke circuitry associated with cognitive control and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a dearth of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations using antisaccade tasks among children with ADHD. Neural correlates associated with antisaccade performance were examined with fMRI in 11 children with ADHD (10 medicated) matched to 11 typically developing children. Significantly greater brain activation in regions in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus was observed in children with ADHD relative to the control group. This pattern separated the children into their respective groups in a taxonomic manner. Sensitivity analyses probing comorbidity and medication-specific effects showed that results were consistent; however, the caudate nucleus difference was only detectable in the full sample, or in subsets with a more relaxed cluster threshold. Antisaccade performance did not significantly differ between the groups, perhaps as a result of greater brain activation or medication effects in the ADHD group. Thus, antisaccade paradigms may have sensitivity and specificity for the investigation of cognitive control deficits and associated neural correlates in ADHD, and may contribute towards the development of new treatment approaches for children with the disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)272-279
Number of pages8
JournalPsychiatry Research - Neuroimaging
Volume234
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 30 2015

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Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Children
  • Cognitive control
  • FMRI
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • Stimulant medication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Schwarz, N. F., Krafft, C. E., Chi, L., Weinberger, A. L., Schaeffer, D. J., Pierce, J. E., Rodrigue, A. L., Williams, C. F., DiBattisto, C. H., Maria, B. L., Davis, C. L., & McDowell, J. E. (2015). Antisaccade-related brain activation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A pilot study. Psychiatry Research - Neuroimaging, 234(2), 272-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.10.003