Association of radiographic morphology with early gastroesophageal reflux disease and satiety control after sleeve gastrectomy

Juan P. Toro, Edward Lin, Ankit D. Patel, S. Scott Davis, Aliu Sanni, Hernan D. Urrego, John F. Sweeney, Jahnavi K. Srinivasan, William Small, Pardeep Kumar Mittal, Aarti Sekhar, Courtney C. Moreno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Background Variable gastric morphology has been identified on routine upper gastrointestinal series after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. This test might give us useful information beyond the presence of leak and obstruction. The aim of this study is to standardize a morphologic classification of gastric sleeve based on water-soluble contrast upper gastrointestinal series, and to determine possible clinical implications. Study Design One hundred morbidly obese patients underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and had routine upper gastrointestinal on postoperative day 1 or 2. Images were reviewed by 4 radiologists who were blinded to outcomes, and sleeve shape was classified as upper pouch, lower pouch, tubular, or dumbbell. Inter-observer agreement was calculated. Clinical outcomes including weight loss, satiety control, and reflux symptoms were recorded. Comparisons were determined by 1-way ANOVA and t-test. Results Mean age was 46 ± 12 years and mean BMI was 45.1 ± 6 kg/m2. Overall inter-observer agreement level for the sleeve shape classification was 76.3%. Sleeve shapes were tubular in 37%, dumbbell in 32%, lower pouch in 22%, and upper pouch in 8%. Mean excess body weight loss at 1, 3, and 6 months was 16.8%, 29.9%, and 39.1%, respectively. Excess body weight loss was not associated with sleeve shape. Mean hunger score was 213 ± 97, and patients with dumbbell shape had higher hunger scores (p = 0.003). Mean reflux score was 5.7 ± 8. Upper pouch shape was associated with greater severity of reflux symptoms (p = 0.02). Conclusions This study suggests a standardized radiographic classification of gastric sleeve morphology. Although sleeve shape is not correlated with weight loss, gastric sleeves with retained fundus result in lower satiety control and higher severity of reflux symptoms. An adequate resection of the gastric fundus might avoid this potential complication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)430-438
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Abbreviations and Acronyms
  • EBWL
  • HRQL
  • Health-Related Quality of Life
  • LSG
  • POD
  • UGI
  • excess body weight loss
  • laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy
  • postoperative day
  • upper gastrointestinal series

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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