Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induces neurovascular injury via poorly defined mechanisms. The aim of this study was to determine whether gliovascular communication may restrict hemorrhagic vascular injury. Hemin, a hemoglobin by-product, concentrationand time-dependently increased apoptotic cell death in mouse bEnd.3 cells and in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells, at least in part, via a caspase-3 dependent pathway. Cell death was preceded by a NFκB-mediated increase in inflammatory gene expression, including upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and activity. Functionally, inhibition of iNOS or the addition of a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst reduced cell death. Interestingly, co-treatment with astrocyte-conditioned media (ACM) reversed hemin-induced NFjB activation, nitrotyrosine formation, and apoptotic cell death, at least in part, via the release of the endogenous antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH). Prior treatment of astrocytes with the GSH-depleting agent, DLbuthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine or direct addition of diethyl maleate, a thiol-depleting agent, to ACM reversed the observed protection. In contrast, neither exogenous GSH nor the GSH precursor, N-acetylcysteine, was protective in bEnd.3 cells. Together, these data support an important role for astrocyte-derived GSH in the maintenance of oxidative balance in the vasculature and suggest therapeutic targeting of the GSH system may reduce neurological injury following ICH.
- Blood-brain barrier
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience