Autologous Breast Reconstruction: The Vanderbilt Experience (1998 to 2005) of Independent Predictors of Displeasing Outcomes

Joseph Angelo Greco, Eric T. Castaldo, Lillian B. Nanney, Y. C. Wu, Rafe Donahue, J. Jason Wendel, Kevin F. Hagan, R. Bruce Shack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Optimal surgical outcomes are dependent on an appreciation of comorbid conditions that may handicap results. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to delineate risk factors for complications after autologous breast reconstruction. Study Design: An institutional database was constructed of patients who underwent autologous breast reconstruction from 1998 to 2005. Variables captured included age, diabetes and smoking status, prereconstruction radiation therapy, concomitant breast resection, preoperative albumin, flap type, and body mass index (BMI; based on World Health Organization classifications: BMI > 25, overweight; > 30, obese). The primary outcome was noninfectious wound complications (NIWC), a novel classification based on the extent of tissue derangement and need for operative intervention. Secondary outcomes were wound infection, hematoma, hernia, and fat necrosis. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression. Results: The analysis included 200 flaps (transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous [TRAM] = 171; latissimus dorsi = 29) in 180 patients. There were 19 infections (9.5%), 3 total flap losses (1.5%), 14 hematomas (7%), and 11 donor-site hernias (6%). The incidences of fat necrosis and any NIWC were 18% and 36%, respectively. Mean followup was 13.1 months (range 1.1 to 51.7 months). Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that obesity (BMI > 30) is a statistically significant independent risk factor for any NIWC (hazards ratio = 6.58; 95% CI, 2.85 to 15.18; p < 0.01) and for NIWC requiring operative treatment (NIWC ≥ 3; hazard ratio = 6.23; 95% CI 2.15 to 18.05; p < 0.01). Increased BMI predicts NIWC, NIWC requiring operative intervention, and wound infection (p < 0.01). Conclusions: These data suggest that obesity is a strong predictor of simple and complex NIWC and of wound infection after autologous breast reconstruction. Obese patients should be counseled about their significantly increased risk of experiencing these unwanted outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-56
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Volume207
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2008

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Mammaplasty
Wounds and Injuries
Wound Infection
Fat Necrosis
Hernia
Hematoma
Obesity
Logistic Models
Rectus Abdominis
Superficial Back Muscles
Chi-Square Distribution
Albumins
Breast
Body Mass Index
Radiotherapy
Smoking
Tissue Donors
Databases
Incidence
Infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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Autologous Breast Reconstruction : The Vanderbilt Experience (1998 to 2005) of Independent Predictors of Displeasing Outcomes. / Greco, Joseph Angelo; Castaldo, Eric T.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Wu, Y. C.; Donahue, Rafe; Wendel, J. Jason; Hagan, Kevin F.; Shack, R. Bruce.

In: Journal of the American College of Surgeons, Vol. 207, No. 1, 01.07.2008, p. 49-56.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Greco, Joseph Angelo ; Castaldo, Eric T. ; Nanney, Lillian B. ; Wu, Y. C. ; Donahue, Rafe ; Wendel, J. Jason ; Hagan, Kevin F. ; Shack, R. Bruce. / Autologous Breast Reconstruction : The Vanderbilt Experience (1998 to 2005) of Independent Predictors of Displeasing Outcomes. In: Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2008 ; Vol. 207, No. 1. pp. 49-56.
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AU - Castaldo, Eric T.

AU - Nanney, Lillian B.

AU - Wu, Y. C.

AU - Donahue, Rafe

AU - Wendel, J. Jason

AU - Hagan, Kevin F.

AU - Shack, R. Bruce

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N2 - Background: Optimal surgical outcomes are dependent on an appreciation of comorbid conditions that may handicap results. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to delineate risk factors for complications after autologous breast reconstruction. Study Design: An institutional database was constructed of patients who underwent autologous breast reconstruction from 1998 to 2005. Variables captured included age, diabetes and smoking status, prereconstruction radiation therapy, concomitant breast resection, preoperative albumin, flap type, and body mass index (BMI; based on World Health Organization classifications: BMI > 25, overweight; > 30, obese). The primary outcome was noninfectious wound complications (NIWC), a novel classification based on the extent of tissue derangement and need for operative intervention. Secondary outcomes were wound infection, hematoma, hernia, and fat necrosis. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression. Results: The analysis included 200 flaps (transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous [TRAM] = 171; latissimus dorsi = 29) in 180 patients. There were 19 infections (9.5%), 3 total flap losses (1.5%), 14 hematomas (7%), and 11 donor-site hernias (6%). The incidences of fat necrosis and any NIWC were 18% and 36%, respectively. Mean followup was 13.1 months (range 1.1 to 51.7 months). Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that obesity (BMI > 30) is a statistically significant independent risk factor for any NIWC (hazards ratio = 6.58; 95% CI, 2.85 to 15.18; p < 0.01) and for NIWC requiring operative treatment (NIWC ≥ 3; hazard ratio = 6.23; 95% CI 2.15 to 18.05; p < 0.01). Increased BMI predicts NIWC, NIWC requiring operative intervention, and wound infection (p < 0.01). Conclusions: These data suggest that obesity is a strong predictor of simple and complex NIWC and of wound infection after autologous breast reconstruction. Obese patients should be counseled about their significantly increased risk of experiencing these unwanted outcomes.

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