Big for small: Validating brain injury guidelines in pediatric traumatic brain injury

Asad Azim, Faisal S. Jehan, Peter Rhee, Terence OKeeffe, Andrew Tang, Gary Vercruysse, Narong Kulvatunyou, Rifat Latifi, Bellal Joseph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND Brain injury guidelines (BIG) were developed to reduce overutilization of neurosurgical consultation (NC) as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. Currently, BIG have been successfully applied to adult populations, but the value of implementing these guidelines among pediatric patients remains unassessed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the established BIG (BIG-1 category) for managing pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) without NC (no-NC). METHODS We prospectively implemented the BIG-1 category (normal neurologic examination, ICH ≤ 4 mm limited to one location, no skull fracture) to identify pediatric TBI patients (age, ≤ 21 years) that were to be managed no-NC. Propensity score matching was performed to match these no-NC patients to a similar cohort of patients managed with NC before the implementation of BIG in a 1:1 ratio for demographics, severity of injury, and type as well as size of ICH. Our primary outcome measure was need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS A total of 405 pediatric TBI patients were enrolled, of which 160 (NC, 80; no-NC, 80) were propensity score matched. The mean age was 9.03 ± 7.47 years, 62.1% (n = 85) were male, the median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15 (13-15), and the median head Abbreviated Injury Scale score was 2 (2-3). A subanalysis based on stratifying patients by age groups showed a decreased in the use of repeat head CT (p = 0.02) in the no-NC group, with no difference in progression (p = 0.34) and the need for neurosurgical intervention (p = 0.9) compared with the NC group. CONCLUSION The BIG can be safely and effectively implemented in pediatric TBI patients. Reducing repeat head CT in pediatric patients has long-term sequelae. Likewise, adhering to the guidelines helps in reducing radiation exposure across all age groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic/care management, level III.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1200-1204
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Volume83
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

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Brain Injuries
Referral and Consultation
Guidelines
Pediatrics
Intracranial Hemorrhages
Propensity Score
Tomography
Age Groups
Head
Abbreviated Injury Scale
Traumatic Brain Injury
Skull Fractures
Glasgow Coma Scale
Neurologic Examination
Craniocerebral Trauma
Demography
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Wounds and Injuries

Keywords

  • Brain Injury Guidelines
  • head injury
  • intracranial hemorrhage
  • neurosurgical consultation
  • pediatric
  • repeat head CT scan
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Cite this

Big for small : Validating brain injury guidelines in pediatric traumatic brain injury. / Azim, Asad; Jehan, Faisal S.; Rhee, Peter; OKeeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Vercruysse, Gary; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Latifi, Rifat; Joseph, Bellal.

In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Vol. 83, No. 6, 01.12.2017, p. 1200-1204.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Azim, A, Jehan, FS, Rhee, P, OKeeffe, T, Tang, A, Vercruysse, G, Kulvatunyou, N, Latifi, R & Joseph, B 2017, 'Big for small: Validating brain injury guidelines in pediatric traumatic brain injury', Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 1200-1204. https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000001611
Azim, Asad ; Jehan, Faisal S. ; Rhee, Peter ; OKeeffe, Terence ; Tang, Andrew ; Vercruysse, Gary ; Kulvatunyou, Narong ; Latifi, Rifat ; Joseph, Bellal. / Big for small : Validating brain injury guidelines in pediatric traumatic brain injury. In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2017 ; Vol. 83, No. 6. pp. 1200-1204.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND Brain injury guidelines (BIG) were developed to reduce overutilization of neurosurgical consultation (NC) as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. Currently, BIG have been successfully applied to adult populations, but the value of implementing these guidelines among pediatric patients remains unassessed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the established BIG (BIG-1 category) for managing pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) without NC (no-NC). METHODS We prospectively implemented the BIG-1 category (normal neurologic examination, ICH ≤ 4 mm limited to one location, no skull fracture) to identify pediatric TBI patients (age, ≤ 21 years) that were to be managed no-NC. Propensity score matching was performed to match these no-NC patients to a similar cohort of patients managed with NC before the implementation of BIG in a 1:1 ratio for demographics, severity of injury, and type as well as size of ICH. Our primary outcome measure was need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS A total of 405 pediatric TBI patients were enrolled, of which 160 (NC, 80; no-NC, 80) were propensity score matched. The mean age was 9.03 ± 7.47 years, 62.1{\%} (n = 85) were male, the median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15 (13-15), and the median head Abbreviated Injury Scale score was 2 (2-3). A subanalysis based on stratifying patients by age groups showed a decreased in the use of repeat head CT (p = 0.02) in the no-NC group, with no difference in progression (p = 0.34) and the need for neurosurgical intervention (p = 0.9) compared with the NC group. CONCLUSION The BIG can be safely and effectively implemented in pediatric TBI patients. Reducing repeat head CT in pediatric patients has long-term sequelae. Likewise, adhering to the guidelines helps in reducing radiation exposure across all age groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic/care management, level III.",
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N2 - BACKGROUND Brain injury guidelines (BIG) were developed to reduce overutilization of neurosurgical consultation (NC) as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. Currently, BIG have been successfully applied to adult populations, but the value of implementing these guidelines among pediatric patients remains unassessed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the established BIG (BIG-1 category) for managing pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) without NC (no-NC). METHODS We prospectively implemented the BIG-1 category (normal neurologic examination, ICH ≤ 4 mm limited to one location, no skull fracture) to identify pediatric TBI patients (age, ≤ 21 years) that were to be managed no-NC. Propensity score matching was performed to match these no-NC patients to a similar cohort of patients managed with NC before the implementation of BIG in a 1:1 ratio for demographics, severity of injury, and type as well as size of ICH. Our primary outcome measure was need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS A total of 405 pediatric TBI patients were enrolled, of which 160 (NC, 80; no-NC, 80) were propensity score matched. The mean age was 9.03 ± 7.47 years, 62.1% (n = 85) were male, the median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15 (13-15), and the median head Abbreviated Injury Scale score was 2 (2-3). A subanalysis based on stratifying patients by age groups showed a decreased in the use of repeat head CT (p = 0.02) in the no-NC group, with no difference in progression (p = 0.34) and the need for neurosurgical intervention (p = 0.9) compared with the NC group. CONCLUSION The BIG can be safely and effectively implemented in pediatric TBI patients. Reducing repeat head CT in pediatric patients has long-term sequelae. Likewise, adhering to the guidelines helps in reducing radiation exposure across all age groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic/care management, level III.

AB - BACKGROUND Brain injury guidelines (BIG) were developed to reduce overutilization of neurosurgical consultation (NC) as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. Currently, BIG have been successfully applied to adult populations, but the value of implementing these guidelines among pediatric patients remains unassessed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the established BIG (BIG-1 category) for managing pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) without NC (no-NC). METHODS We prospectively implemented the BIG-1 category (normal neurologic examination, ICH ≤ 4 mm limited to one location, no skull fracture) to identify pediatric TBI patients (age, ≤ 21 years) that were to be managed no-NC. Propensity score matching was performed to match these no-NC patients to a similar cohort of patients managed with NC before the implementation of BIG in a 1:1 ratio for demographics, severity of injury, and type as well as size of ICH. Our primary outcome measure was need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS A total of 405 pediatric TBI patients were enrolled, of which 160 (NC, 80; no-NC, 80) were propensity score matched. The mean age was 9.03 ± 7.47 years, 62.1% (n = 85) were male, the median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15 (13-15), and the median head Abbreviated Injury Scale score was 2 (2-3). A subanalysis based on stratifying patients by age groups showed a decreased in the use of repeat head CT (p = 0.02) in the no-NC group, with no difference in progression (p = 0.34) and the need for neurosurgical intervention (p = 0.9) compared with the NC group. CONCLUSION The BIG can be safely and effectively implemented in pediatric TBI patients. Reducing repeat head CT in pediatric patients has long-term sequelae. Likewise, adhering to the guidelines helps in reducing radiation exposure across all age groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic/care management, level III.

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