Body fat as a regulator of bone mass

Experimental evidence from animal models

Mark W Hamrick, Mary Anne Della-Fera, Clifton A. Baile, Norman K. Pollock, Richard D. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Animal models have proven valuable for elucidating the effects of body fat on bone metabolism, and this review highlights recent findings relevant for better understanding the relationship between adiposity and bone mass. Genetically obese mice and rats with altered leptin signaling consistently show reduced bone mass, demonstrating that leptin deficiency can contribute directly to osteopenia; however, the effect of leptin on bone is concentration dependent, such that relatively low doses of leptin stimulate bone formation, whereas high concentrations of leptin suppress bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hyperleptinemia associated with obesity and leptin receptor downregulation is therefore likely to have a negative impact on bone modeling and adaptation. Likewise, diets high in fat and sugar have been observed to increase bone fragility and decrease the accumulation of bone mineral in growing rodents. In vitro studies reveal that increasing concentrations of glucose and lipid can inhibit osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and instead direct these precursors toward the adipocyte lineage. Taken together, the evidence from animal studies indicates that excess body fat and obesogenic diets may attenuate the accretion of skeletal mass in growing animals, suggesting that low bone mass (relative to body weight) may be a potential side-effect of pediatric obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)224-229
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009

Fingerprint

Adipose Tissue
Animal Models
Bone and Bones
Leptin
Osteogenesis
Leptin Receptors
Obese Mice
Metabolic Bone Diseases
Pediatric Obesity
Adiposity
High Fat Diet
Bone Resorption
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Adipocytes
Minerals
Rodentia
Down-Regulation
Obesity
Body Weight
Diet

Keywords

  • Bone mineral density
  • Glucose
  • High-fat diet
  • Lipids
  • Mesenchymal stem cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Body fat as a regulator of bone mass : Experimental evidence from animal models. / Hamrick, Mark W; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A.; Pollock, Norman K.; Lewis, Richard D.

In: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Vol. 7, No. 3, 01.01.2009, p. 224-229.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Hamrick, Mark W ; Della-Fera, Mary Anne ; Baile, Clifton A. ; Pollock, Norman K. ; Lewis, Richard D. / Body fat as a regulator of bone mass : Experimental evidence from animal models. In: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism. 2009 ; Vol. 7, No. 3. pp. 224-229.
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