Breast and cervical carcinoma screening practices among women in rural and nonrural areas of the United States, 1998-1999

Steven Scott Coughlin, Trevor D. Thompson, H. Irene Hall, Pamela Logan, Robert J. Uhler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

138 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Prior studies have suggested that women living in rural areas may be less likely than women living in urban areas to have had a recent mammogram and Papanicolau (Pap) test and that rural women may face substantial barriers to receiving preventive health care services. METHODS. The authors examined both breast and cervical carcinoma screening practices of women living in rural and nonrural areas of the United States from 1998 through 1999 using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The authors limited their analyses of screening mammography and clinical breast examination to women aged 40 years or older (n = 108,326). In addition, they limited their analyses of Pap testing to women aged 18 years or older who did not have a history of hysterectomy (n = 131,813). They divided the geographic areas of residence into rural areas and small towns, suburban areas and smaller metropolitan areas, and larger metropolitan areas. RESULTS. Approximately 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 65.8% to 67.6%) of women aged 40 years or older who resided in rural areas had received a mammogram in the past 2 years, compared with 75.4% of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95% CI = 74.9% to 75.9%). About 73.0% (95% CI = 72.2% to 73.9%) of women aged 40 years or older who resided in rural areas had received a clinical breast examination in the past 2 years, compared with 78.2% of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95% CI = 77.8% to 78.7%). About 81.3% (95% CI = 80.6% to 82.0%) of 131,813 rural women aged 18 years or older who had not undergone a hysterectomy had received a Pap test in the past 3 years, compared with 84.5% of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95% CI = 84.1% to 84.9%). The differences in screening across rural and nonrural areas persisted in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. These results underscore the need for continued efforts to provide breast and cervical carcinoma screening to women living in rural areas of the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2801-2812
Number of pages12
JournalCancer
Volume94
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2002
Externally publishedYes

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Breast Neoplasms
Confidence Intervals
Preventive Health Services
Hysterectomy
Breast
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Mammography
Multivariate Analysis

Keywords

  • Breast carcinoma
  • Cancer prevention and control
  • Cervical carcinoma
  • Pap tests
  • Rural health
  • Rural populations
  • Screening mammography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Breast and cervical carcinoma screening practices among women in rural and nonrural areas of the United States, 1998-1999. / Coughlin, Steven Scott; Thompson, Trevor D.; Hall, H. Irene; Logan, Pamela; Uhler, Robert J.

In: Cancer, Vol. 94, No. 11, 01.06.2002, p. 2801-2812.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Coughlin, Steven Scott ; Thompson, Trevor D. ; Hall, H. Irene ; Logan, Pamela ; Uhler, Robert J. / Breast and cervical carcinoma screening practices among women in rural and nonrural areas of the United States, 1998-1999. In: Cancer. 2002 ; Vol. 94, No. 11. pp. 2801-2812.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND. Prior studies have suggested that women living in rural areas may be less likely than women living in urban areas to have had a recent mammogram and Papanicolau (Pap) test and that rural women may face substantial barriers to receiving preventive health care services. METHODS. The authors examined both breast and cervical carcinoma screening practices of women living in rural and nonrural areas of the United States from 1998 through 1999 using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The authors limited their analyses of screening mammography and clinical breast examination to women aged 40 years or older (n = 108,326). In addition, they limited their analyses of Pap testing to women aged 18 years or older who did not have a history of hysterectomy (n = 131,813). They divided the geographic areas of residence into rural areas and small towns, suburban areas and smaller metropolitan areas, and larger metropolitan areas. RESULTS. Approximately 66.7{\%} (95{\%} confidence interval [CI] = 65.8{\%} to 67.6{\%}) of women aged 40 years or older who resided in rural areas had received a mammogram in the past 2 years, compared with 75.4{\%} of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95{\%} CI = 74.9{\%} to 75.9{\%}). About 73.0{\%} (95{\%} CI = 72.2{\%} to 73.9{\%}) of women aged 40 years or older who resided in rural areas had received a clinical breast examination in the past 2 years, compared with 78.2{\%} of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95{\%} CI = 77.8{\%} to 78.7{\%}). About 81.3{\%} (95{\%} CI = 80.6{\%} to 82.0{\%}) of 131,813 rural women aged 18 years or older who had not undergone a hysterectomy had received a Pap test in the past 3 years, compared with 84.5{\%} of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95{\%} CI = 84.1{\%} to 84.9{\%}). The differences in screening across rural and nonrural areas persisted in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. These results underscore the need for continued efforts to provide breast and cervical carcinoma screening to women living in rural areas of the United States.",
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T1 - Breast and cervical carcinoma screening practices among women in rural and nonrural areas of the United States, 1998-1999

AU - Coughlin, Steven Scott

AU - Thompson, Trevor D.

AU - Hall, H. Irene

AU - Logan, Pamela

AU - Uhler, Robert J.

PY - 2002/6/1

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N2 - BACKGROUND. Prior studies have suggested that women living in rural areas may be less likely than women living in urban areas to have had a recent mammogram and Papanicolau (Pap) test and that rural women may face substantial barriers to receiving preventive health care services. METHODS. The authors examined both breast and cervical carcinoma screening practices of women living in rural and nonrural areas of the United States from 1998 through 1999 using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The authors limited their analyses of screening mammography and clinical breast examination to women aged 40 years or older (n = 108,326). In addition, they limited their analyses of Pap testing to women aged 18 years or older who did not have a history of hysterectomy (n = 131,813). They divided the geographic areas of residence into rural areas and small towns, suburban areas and smaller metropolitan areas, and larger metropolitan areas. RESULTS. Approximately 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 65.8% to 67.6%) of women aged 40 years or older who resided in rural areas had received a mammogram in the past 2 years, compared with 75.4% of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95% CI = 74.9% to 75.9%). About 73.0% (95% CI = 72.2% to 73.9%) of women aged 40 years or older who resided in rural areas had received a clinical breast examination in the past 2 years, compared with 78.2% of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95% CI = 77.8% to 78.7%). About 81.3% (95% CI = 80.6% to 82.0%) of 131,813 rural women aged 18 years or older who had not undergone a hysterectomy had received a Pap test in the past 3 years, compared with 84.5% of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95% CI = 84.1% to 84.9%). The differences in screening across rural and nonrural areas persisted in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. These results underscore the need for continued efforts to provide breast and cervical carcinoma screening to women living in rural areas of the United States.

AB - BACKGROUND. Prior studies have suggested that women living in rural areas may be less likely than women living in urban areas to have had a recent mammogram and Papanicolau (Pap) test and that rural women may face substantial barriers to receiving preventive health care services. METHODS. The authors examined both breast and cervical carcinoma screening practices of women living in rural and nonrural areas of the United States from 1998 through 1999 using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The authors limited their analyses of screening mammography and clinical breast examination to women aged 40 years or older (n = 108,326). In addition, they limited their analyses of Pap testing to women aged 18 years or older who did not have a history of hysterectomy (n = 131,813). They divided the geographic areas of residence into rural areas and small towns, suburban areas and smaller metropolitan areas, and larger metropolitan areas. RESULTS. Approximately 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 65.8% to 67.6%) of women aged 40 years or older who resided in rural areas had received a mammogram in the past 2 years, compared with 75.4% of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95% CI = 74.9% to 75.9%). About 73.0% (95% CI = 72.2% to 73.9%) of women aged 40 years or older who resided in rural areas had received a clinical breast examination in the past 2 years, compared with 78.2% of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95% CI = 77.8% to 78.7%). About 81.3% (95% CI = 80.6% to 82.0%) of 131,813 rural women aged 18 years or older who had not undergone a hysterectomy had received a Pap test in the past 3 years, compared with 84.5% of women living in larger metropolitan areas (95% CI = 84.1% to 84.9%). The differences in screening across rural and nonrural areas persisted in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. These results underscore the need for continued efforts to provide breast and cervical carcinoma screening to women living in rural areas of the United States.

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KW - Cancer prevention and control

KW - Cervical carcinoma

KW - Pap tests

KW - Rural health

KW - Rural populations

KW - Screening mammography

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