Complement plays a key role in immunosurveillance and homeostasis. When dysregulated or overactivated, complement can become a pathological effector, as seen in several inflammatory disorders, including periodontal disease. Recently, clinical correlative studies and preclinical mechanistic investigations have collectively demonstrated that complement is hyperactivated during periodontitis and that targeting its central component (C3) provides therapeutic benefit in nonhuman primates (NHPs). The preclinical efficacy of a C3-targeted drug candidate combined with excellent safety and pharmacokinetic profiles supported its use in a recent Phase IIa clinical study in which C3 inhibition resolved gingival inflammation in patients with periodontal disease. We posit that C3-targeted intervention might represent a novel and transformative host-modulation therapy meriting further investigation in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of periodontitis.