Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes

Andrea Ebert-McNeill, Sara P. Clark, James J. Miller, Paige Birdsall, Manisha Chandar, Lucia Wu, Elizabeth A. Cerny, Patricia H. Hall, Maribeth H Johnson, Carlos M Isales, Norman Chutkan, Maryka H. Bhattacharyya

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Abstract

Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 μg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberkfs226
Pages (from-to)191-204
Number of pages14
JournalToxicological Sciences
Volume130
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2012

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Cadmium
Smoke
Tobacco Products
Blood
Nutrition
Diet
Lung

Keywords

  • Blood cadmium
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Inhaled cadmium
  • Sensitive sub-population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Ebert-McNeill, A., Clark, S. P., Miller, J. J., Birdsall, P., Chandar, M., Wu, L., ... Bhattacharyya, M. H. (2012). Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes. Toxicological Sciences, 130(1), 191-204. [kfs226]. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs226

Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes. / Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P.; Miller, James J.; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Patricia H.; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos M; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

In: Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 130, No. 1, kfs226, 01.11.2012, p. 191-204.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ebert-McNeill, A, Clark, SP, Miller, JJ, Birdsall, P, Chandar, M, Wu, L, Cerny, EA, Hall, PH, Johnson, MH, Isales, CM, Chutkan, N & Bhattacharyya, MH 2012, 'Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes', Toxicological Sciences, vol. 130, no. 1, kfs226, pp. 191-204. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs226
Ebert-McNeill A, Clark SP, Miller JJ, Birdsall P, Chandar M, Wu L et al. Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes. Toxicological Sciences. 2012 Nov 1;130(1):191-204. kfs226. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs226
Ebert-McNeill, Andrea ; Clark, Sara P. ; Miller, James J. ; Birdsall, Paige ; Chandar, Manisha ; Wu, Lucia ; Cerny, Elizabeth A. ; Hall, Patricia H. ; Johnson, Maribeth H ; Isales, Carlos M ; Chutkan, Norman ; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H. / Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes. In: Toxicological Sciences. 2012 ; Vol. 130, No. 1. pp. 191-204.
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abstract = "Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20{\%} male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31{\%} male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 μg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75{\%} of smokers, whereas 25{\%} had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity.",
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