Background: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or end-stage renal disease receiving dialysis have an increased risk of developing malignancies, but few data are available on cancer in patients with both conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of selected malignancies and identify their potential risk factors in HIV-infected dialysis patients.
Methods: This study was a nationwide cohort analysis using the US Renal Data System. Participants included all HIV-infected patients starting dialysis from 2005 to 2011. HIV status, comorbidities and malignancies were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Descriptive statistics and generalized linear models quantifying risk factors were performed for the overall cohort and the three most common malignancies.
Results: Overall, 6641 HIV-infected dialysis patients were identified, with 543 (8.2%) carrying a malignancy diagnosis. The most common malignancies were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, 25%), Kaposi sarcoma (KS, 16%) and colorectal cancer (13%). Factors increasing the risk of any malignancy diagnosis included: history of cancer [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 5.37], two or more acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining opportunistic infections (ADOIs) (aRR = 3.11), one ADOI (aRR = 2.23), cirrhosis (aRR = 2.20), male sex (aRR = 1.54) and hepatitis B (aRR = 1.52). For NHL and colorectal cancer, history of cancer (aRR = 7.05 and 9.80, respectively) was the most significant risk factor. For KS, two or more ADOIs (aRR = 6.78) was the largest risk factor.
Conclusions: Over 8% of HIV-infected dialysis patients developed a malignancy. History of cancer and ADOIs were major risk factors, underscoring the significance of immune dysregulation in malignancy development.