CCL28 effects on periodontal pathogens

Heather R. Watkins, Carol A. Lapp, Philip Jerry Hanes, Douglas P. Dickinson, Keith R. Volkmann, Cheryl L Newman, Joseph L. Konzelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Chemokines are small proteins that signal to and attract cells of the immune system; they are vital components in the modulation of immunity and wound healing. A newly described chemokine was reported to have antibacterial and antifungal activity. This chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28; also called mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine), is secreted by mucosal epithelial cells and is found in saliva and in breast milk. The objective of this study was to test whether CCL28 has antibacterial activity against two anaerobic periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: We used a bacterial viability test, in which two fluorescent dyes are bound differentially to living and killed bacteria. We tested the bacteria at concentrations of 2 × 10 7/ml, exposing them to CCL28 at concentrations from 0.04 to 10 μM. Results: CCL28 was effective at killing both organisms. After 1 hour of exposure to the chemokine under appropriate oxygen conditions, the percentage of living organisms was reduced significantly for each species. We estimated the 50% effective concentration to be ∼0.7 μM for P. gingivalis and ∼2.0 μM for A. actinomycetemcomitans (N = five experiments each). We confirmed these observations using standard bacterial plating methods. Conclusion: Because this chemokine is secreted into the saliva, a reduction in salivary flow (as in xerostomia) may diminish the oral self-defense mechanisms by also reducing the exposure of bacteria to the antibacterial action of CCL28.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2356-2363
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of periodontology
Volume78
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007

Fingerprint

Chemokines
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Bacteria
Saliva
Microbial Viability
Xerostomia
CC Chemokines
Social Conditions
Human Milk
Fluorescent Dyes
Wound Healing
Immune System
Immunity
Mucous Membrane
Epithelial Cells
Oxygen
Ligands
Proteins

Keywords

  • Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
  • CCL28
  • Chemokines
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics

Cite this

Watkins, H. R., Lapp, C. A., Hanes, P. J., Dickinson, D. P., Volkmann, K. R., Newman, C. L., & Konzelman, J. L. (2007). CCL28 effects on periodontal pathogens. Journal of periodontology, 78(12), 2356-2363. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2007.060504

CCL28 effects on periodontal pathogens. / Watkins, Heather R.; Lapp, Carol A.; Hanes, Philip Jerry; Dickinson, Douglas P.; Volkmann, Keith R.; Newman, Cheryl L; Konzelman, Joseph L.

In: Journal of periodontology, Vol. 78, No. 12, 01.12.2007, p. 2356-2363.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Watkins, HR, Lapp, CA, Hanes, PJ, Dickinson, DP, Volkmann, KR, Newman, CL & Konzelman, JL 2007, 'CCL28 effects on periodontal pathogens', Journal of periodontology, vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 2356-2363. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2007.060504
Watkins HR, Lapp CA, Hanes PJ, Dickinson DP, Volkmann KR, Newman CL et al. CCL28 effects on periodontal pathogens. Journal of periodontology. 2007 Dec 1;78(12):2356-2363. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2007.060504
Watkins, Heather R. ; Lapp, Carol A. ; Hanes, Philip Jerry ; Dickinson, Douglas P. ; Volkmann, Keith R. ; Newman, Cheryl L ; Konzelman, Joseph L. / CCL28 effects on periodontal pathogens. In: Journal of periodontology. 2007 ; Vol. 78, No. 12. pp. 2356-2363.
@article{5325eed6e02143a7b36a442454c6158f,
title = "CCL28 effects on periodontal pathogens",
abstract = "Background: Chemokines are small proteins that signal to and attract cells of the immune system; they are vital components in the modulation of immunity and wound healing. A newly described chemokine was reported to have antibacterial and antifungal activity. This chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28; also called mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine), is secreted by mucosal epithelial cells and is found in saliva and in breast milk. The objective of this study was to test whether CCL28 has antibacterial activity against two anaerobic periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: We used a bacterial viability test, in which two fluorescent dyes are bound differentially to living and killed bacteria. We tested the bacteria at concentrations of 2 × 10 7/ml, exposing them to CCL28 at concentrations from 0.04 to 10 μM. Results: CCL28 was effective at killing both organisms. After 1 hour of exposure to the chemokine under appropriate oxygen conditions, the percentage of living organisms was reduced significantly for each species. We estimated the 50{\%} effective concentration to be ∼0.7 μM for P. gingivalis and ∼2.0 μM for A. actinomycetemcomitans (N = five experiments each). We confirmed these observations using standard bacterial plating methods. Conclusion: Because this chemokine is secreted into the saliva, a reduction in salivary flow (as in xerostomia) may diminish the oral self-defense mechanisms by also reducing the exposure of bacteria to the antibacterial action of CCL28.",
keywords = "Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, CCL28, Chemokines, Porphyromonas gingivalis",
author = "Watkins, {Heather R.} and Lapp, {Carol A.} and Hanes, {Philip Jerry} and Dickinson, {Douglas P.} and Volkmann, {Keith R.} and Newman, {Cheryl L} and Konzelman, {Joseph L.}",
year = "2007",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1902/jop.2007.060504",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "78",
pages = "2356--2363",
journal = "Journal of Periodontology",
issn = "0022-3492",
publisher = "American Academy of Periodontology",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - CCL28 effects on periodontal pathogens

AU - Watkins, Heather R.

AU - Lapp, Carol A.

AU - Hanes, Philip Jerry

AU - Dickinson, Douglas P.

AU - Volkmann, Keith R.

AU - Newman, Cheryl L

AU - Konzelman, Joseph L.

PY - 2007/12/1

Y1 - 2007/12/1

N2 - Background: Chemokines are small proteins that signal to and attract cells of the immune system; they are vital components in the modulation of immunity and wound healing. A newly described chemokine was reported to have antibacterial and antifungal activity. This chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28; also called mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine), is secreted by mucosal epithelial cells and is found in saliva and in breast milk. The objective of this study was to test whether CCL28 has antibacterial activity against two anaerobic periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: We used a bacterial viability test, in which two fluorescent dyes are bound differentially to living and killed bacteria. We tested the bacteria at concentrations of 2 × 10 7/ml, exposing them to CCL28 at concentrations from 0.04 to 10 μM. Results: CCL28 was effective at killing both organisms. After 1 hour of exposure to the chemokine under appropriate oxygen conditions, the percentage of living organisms was reduced significantly for each species. We estimated the 50% effective concentration to be ∼0.7 μM for P. gingivalis and ∼2.0 μM for A. actinomycetemcomitans (N = five experiments each). We confirmed these observations using standard bacterial plating methods. Conclusion: Because this chemokine is secreted into the saliva, a reduction in salivary flow (as in xerostomia) may diminish the oral self-defense mechanisms by also reducing the exposure of bacteria to the antibacterial action of CCL28.

AB - Background: Chemokines are small proteins that signal to and attract cells of the immune system; they are vital components in the modulation of immunity and wound healing. A newly described chemokine was reported to have antibacterial and antifungal activity. This chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28; also called mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine), is secreted by mucosal epithelial cells and is found in saliva and in breast milk. The objective of this study was to test whether CCL28 has antibacterial activity against two anaerobic periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: We used a bacterial viability test, in which two fluorescent dyes are bound differentially to living and killed bacteria. We tested the bacteria at concentrations of 2 × 10 7/ml, exposing them to CCL28 at concentrations from 0.04 to 10 μM. Results: CCL28 was effective at killing both organisms. After 1 hour of exposure to the chemokine under appropriate oxygen conditions, the percentage of living organisms was reduced significantly for each species. We estimated the 50% effective concentration to be ∼0.7 μM for P. gingivalis and ∼2.0 μM for A. actinomycetemcomitans (N = five experiments each). We confirmed these observations using standard bacterial plating methods. Conclusion: Because this chemokine is secreted into the saliva, a reduction in salivary flow (as in xerostomia) may diminish the oral self-defense mechanisms by also reducing the exposure of bacteria to the antibacterial action of CCL28.

KW - Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

KW - CCL28

KW - Chemokines

KW - Porphyromonas gingivalis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=37649002079&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=37649002079&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1902/jop.2007.060504

DO - 10.1902/jop.2007.060504

M3 - Article

C2 - 18052709

AN - SCOPUS:37649002079

VL - 78

SP - 2356

EP - 2363

JO - Journal of Periodontology

JF - Journal of Periodontology

SN - 0022-3492

IS - 12

ER -