Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans

Benjamin D. Levine, Cole A. Giller, Lynda D. Lane, Jay C. Buckey, C. Gunnar Blomqvist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

235 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. Methods and Results: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27±7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Q(c) is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were estimated from changes in the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (V(MCA)) using transcranial Doppler. Pulsatility (systolic minus diastolic/mean velocity) normalized for systemic arterial pressure pulsatility was used as an index of distal cerebral vascular resistance. End-tidal P(A)CO2 was closely monitored during LBNP. From rest to maximal LBNP before the onset of symptoms or systemic hypotension, Q(c) and FBF decreased by 29.9% and 34.4%, respectively. V(MCA) decreased less, by 15.5% consistent with a smaller decrease in CBF. Similarly, SVR and FVR increased by 62.8% and 69.8%, respectively, whereas pulsatility increased by 17.2%, suggestive of a mild degree of small-vessel cerebral vasoconstriction. Seven of 13 subjects had presyncope during LBNP, all associated with a sudden drop in BP (29±9%). By comparison, hyperventilation alone caused greater changes in V(MCA) (42±2%) and pulsatility but never caused presyncope. In a separate group of 3 subjects, superimposition of hyperventilation during high level LBNP caused a further decrease in VMCA (31±7%) but no change in BP or level of consciousness. Conclusions: We conclude that cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in healthy humans during graded reductions in central blood volume caused by LBNP. However, the magnitude of this response is small compared with changes in SVR or FVR during LBNP or other stimuli known to induce cerebral vasoconstriction (hypocapnia). We speculate that this degree of cerebral vasoconstriction is not by itself sufficient to cause syncope during orthostatic stress. However, it may exacerbate the decrease in CBF associated with hypotension if hemodynamic instability develops.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)298-306
Number of pages9
JournalCirculation
Volume90
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1994
Externally publishedYes

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Cerebrovascular Circulation
Lower Body Negative Pressure
Vasoconstriction
Syncope
Hemodynamics
Vascular Resistance
Hypotension
Middle Cerebral Artery
Vasovagal Syncope
Hyperventilation
Blood Volume
Forearm
Homeostasis
Hypocapnia
Orthostatic Hypotension
Plethysmography
Unconsciousness
Blood Flow Velocity
Sympathetic Nervous System
Regional Blood Flow

Keywords

  • blood flow
  • echocardiography, Doppler
  • hemodynamics
  • nervous system, autonomic
  • pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Levine, B. D., Giller, C. A., Lane, L. D., Buckey, J. C., & Blomqvist, C. G. (1994). Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans. Circulation, 90(1), 298-306. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.90.1.298

Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans. / Levine, Benjamin D.; Giller, Cole A.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar.

In: Circulation, Vol. 90, No. 1, 01.01.1994, p. 298-306.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Levine, BD, Giller, CA, Lane, LD, Buckey, JC & Blomqvist, CG 1994, 'Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans', Circulation, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 298-306. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.90.1.298
Levine, Benjamin D. ; Giller, Cole A. ; Lane, Lynda D. ; Buckey, Jay C. ; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar. / Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans. In: Circulation. 1994 ; Vol. 90, No. 1. pp. 298-306.
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abstract = "Background: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. Methods and Results: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27±7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Q(c) is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were estimated from changes in the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (V(MCA)) using transcranial Doppler. Pulsatility (systolic minus diastolic/mean velocity) normalized for systemic arterial pressure pulsatility was used as an index of distal cerebral vascular resistance. End-tidal P(A)CO2 was closely monitored during LBNP. From rest to maximal LBNP before the onset of symptoms or systemic hypotension, Q(c) and FBF decreased by 29.9{\%} and 34.4{\%}, respectively. V(MCA) decreased less, by 15.5{\%} consistent with a smaller decrease in CBF. Similarly, SVR and FVR increased by 62.8{\%} and 69.8{\%}, respectively, whereas pulsatility increased by 17.2{\%}, suggestive of a mild degree of small-vessel cerebral vasoconstriction. Seven of 13 subjects had presyncope during LBNP, all associated with a sudden drop in BP (29±9{\%}). By comparison, hyperventilation alone caused greater changes in V(MCA) (42±2{\%}) and pulsatility but never caused presyncope. In a separate group of 3 subjects, superimposition of hyperventilation during high level LBNP caused a further decrease in VMCA (31±7{\%}) but no change in BP or level of consciousness. Conclusions: We conclude that cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in healthy humans during graded reductions in central blood volume caused by LBNP. However, the magnitude of this response is small compared with changes in SVR or FVR during LBNP or other stimuli known to induce cerebral vasoconstriction (hypocapnia). We speculate that this degree of cerebral vasoconstriction is not by itself sufficient to cause syncope during orthostatic stress. However, it may exacerbate the decrease in CBF associated with hypotension if hemodynamic instability develops.",
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T1 - Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans

AU - Levine, Benjamin D.

AU - Giller, Cole A.

AU - Lane, Lynda D.

AU - Buckey, Jay C.

AU - Blomqvist, C. Gunnar

PY - 1994/1/1

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N2 - Background: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. Methods and Results: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27±7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Q(c) is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were estimated from changes in the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (V(MCA)) using transcranial Doppler. Pulsatility (systolic minus diastolic/mean velocity) normalized for systemic arterial pressure pulsatility was used as an index of distal cerebral vascular resistance. End-tidal P(A)CO2 was closely monitored during LBNP. From rest to maximal LBNP before the onset of symptoms or systemic hypotension, Q(c) and FBF decreased by 29.9% and 34.4%, respectively. V(MCA) decreased less, by 15.5% consistent with a smaller decrease in CBF. Similarly, SVR and FVR increased by 62.8% and 69.8%, respectively, whereas pulsatility increased by 17.2%, suggestive of a mild degree of small-vessel cerebral vasoconstriction. Seven of 13 subjects had presyncope during LBNP, all associated with a sudden drop in BP (29±9%). By comparison, hyperventilation alone caused greater changes in V(MCA) (42±2%) and pulsatility but never caused presyncope. In a separate group of 3 subjects, superimposition of hyperventilation during high level LBNP caused a further decrease in VMCA (31±7%) but no change in BP or level of consciousness. Conclusions: We conclude that cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in healthy humans during graded reductions in central blood volume caused by LBNP. However, the magnitude of this response is small compared with changes in SVR or FVR during LBNP or other stimuli known to induce cerebral vasoconstriction (hypocapnia). We speculate that this degree of cerebral vasoconstriction is not by itself sufficient to cause syncope during orthostatic stress. However, it may exacerbate the decrease in CBF associated with hypotension if hemodynamic instability develops.

AB - Background: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. Methods and Results: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27±7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Q(c) is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were estimated from changes in the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (V(MCA)) using transcranial Doppler. Pulsatility (systolic minus diastolic/mean velocity) normalized for systemic arterial pressure pulsatility was used as an index of distal cerebral vascular resistance. End-tidal P(A)CO2 was closely monitored during LBNP. From rest to maximal LBNP before the onset of symptoms or systemic hypotension, Q(c) and FBF decreased by 29.9% and 34.4%, respectively. V(MCA) decreased less, by 15.5% consistent with a smaller decrease in CBF. Similarly, SVR and FVR increased by 62.8% and 69.8%, respectively, whereas pulsatility increased by 17.2%, suggestive of a mild degree of small-vessel cerebral vasoconstriction. Seven of 13 subjects had presyncope during LBNP, all associated with a sudden drop in BP (29±9%). By comparison, hyperventilation alone caused greater changes in V(MCA) (42±2%) and pulsatility but never caused presyncope. In a separate group of 3 subjects, superimposition of hyperventilation during high level LBNP caused a further decrease in VMCA (31±7%) but no change in BP or level of consciousness. Conclusions: We conclude that cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in healthy humans during graded reductions in central blood volume caused by LBNP. However, the magnitude of this response is small compared with changes in SVR or FVR during LBNP or other stimuli known to induce cerebral vasoconstriction (hypocapnia). We speculate that this degree of cerebral vasoconstriction is not by itself sufficient to cause syncope during orthostatic stress. However, it may exacerbate the decrease in CBF associated with hypotension if hemodynamic instability develops.

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