Pretreatment characteristics and outcome of patients treated with induction regimens containing high-dose ara-C (HiDAC) at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center refractory to 1 cycle of induction were compared with similar patients achieving a complete response (CR). Among 1597 patients treated with HiDAC-based induction from 1995 to 2009, 285 were refractory to 1 cycle. Median age was 59 years (range, 18-85 years). Induction regimens included HiDAC with anthracyclines (n = 181; 64%) or HiDAC with nonanthracycline chemotherapy (n = 104; 36%). Refractory patients were older (median age, 59 vs 56 years; P <.001), more likely with unfavorable cytogenetics (P<.001) and antecedent hematologic disorder (P <.001), and had a higher presentation white blood cell count (P =.04), but not a higher incidence of FLT3 mutations (P =.85), than those achieving CR. Forty-three patients (22%) responded to salvage (35 CR and 8 CR without platelet recovery). With a median follow-up of 72 months (range, 27-118 months) in responders, 11 are alive. Nineteen patients (7%) were alive and in CR for at least 6 months, including 9 who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. On multivariate analysis, severe thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, increasing marrow blast percentage, unfavorable cytogenetics, and salvage not including allogeneic stem cell transplantation were associated with a worse survival. Alternative strategies are needed for these patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology