Chronic Ethanol Consumption Results in Atypical Liver Injury in Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase Deficient Mice

Tiana Vitula Curry-McCoy, Natalia A. Osna, Amin A. Nanji, Terrence M. Donohue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Ethanol metabolism increases production of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide () in the liver, resulting in significant oxidative stress, which causes cellular damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide to less toxic intermediates, preventing accumulation. Because the absence of SOD would confer less resistance to oxidative stress, we determined whether damage to hepatic proteolytic systems was greater in SOD-/- than in SOD+/+ mice after chronic ethanol feeding. Methods: Female wild-type (SOD+/+) and Cu/Zn-SOD knockout (SOD-/-) mice were pair-fed ethanol and control liquid diets for 24 days, after which liver injury was assessed. Results: Ethanol-fed SOD-/- mice had 4-fold higher blood ethanol, 2.8-fold higher alanine aminotransferase levels, 20% higher liver weight, a 1.4-fold rise in hepatic protein levels, and 35 to 70% higher levels of lipid peroxides than corresponding wild-type mice. While wild-type mice exhibited fatty liver after ethanol administration, SOD-/- mice showed no evidence of ethanol-induced steatosis, although triglyceride levels were elevated in both groups of knockout mice. Ethanol administration caused no significant change in proteasome activity, but caused lysosomal leakage in livers of SOD-/- mice but not in wild-type mice. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was reduced by 50 to 60% in ethanol-fed SOD-/- mice compared with all other groups. Additionally, while ethanol administration induced cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in wild-type mice, it caused no such induction in SOD-/- mice. Unexpectedly, ethanol feeding significantly elevated total and mitochondrial levels of glutathione in SOD knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Conclusion: Ethanol-fed SOD-/- mice exhibited lower alcohol dehydrogenase activity and lack of CYP2E1 inducibility, thereby causing decreased ethanol metabolism compared with wild-type mice. These and other atypical responses to ethanol, including the absence of ethanol-induced steatosis and enhanced glutathione levels, appear to be linked to enhanced oxidative stress due to lack of antioxidant enzyme capacity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-261
Number of pages11
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Liver
Superoxide Dismutase
Zinc
Copper
Ethanol
Wounds and Injuries
Oxidative stress
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
Oxidative Stress
Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Metabolism
Knockout Mice
Superoxides
Glutathione
Antioxidants
Lipid Peroxides
Poisons
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
Fatty Liver
Enzymes

Keywords

  • Alcohol
  • Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase
  • Knockout Mice
  • Liver

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Chronic Ethanol Consumption Results in Atypical Liver Injury in Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase Deficient Mice. / Curry-McCoy, Tiana Vitula; Osna, Natalia A.; Nanji, Amin A.; Donohue, Terrence M.

In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 34, No. 2, 01.02.2010, p. 251-261.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Donohue, Terrence M.

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N2 - Background: Ethanol metabolism increases production of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide () in the liver, resulting in significant oxidative stress, which causes cellular damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide to less toxic intermediates, preventing accumulation. Because the absence of SOD would confer less resistance to oxidative stress, we determined whether damage to hepatic proteolytic systems was greater in SOD-/- than in SOD+/+ mice after chronic ethanol feeding. Methods: Female wild-type (SOD+/+) and Cu/Zn-SOD knockout (SOD-/-) mice were pair-fed ethanol and control liquid diets for 24 days, after which liver injury was assessed. Results: Ethanol-fed SOD-/- mice had 4-fold higher blood ethanol, 2.8-fold higher alanine aminotransferase levels, 20% higher liver weight, a 1.4-fold rise in hepatic protein levels, and 35 to 70% higher levels of lipid peroxides than corresponding wild-type mice. While wild-type mice exhibited fatty liver after ethanol administration, SOD-/- mice showed no evidence of ethanol-induced steatosis, although triglyceride levels were elevated in both groups of knockout mice. Ethanol administration caused no significant change in proteasome activity, but caused lysosomal leakage in livers of SOD-/- mice but not in wild-type mice. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was reduced by 50 to 60% in ethanol-fed SOD-/- mice compared with all other groups. Additionally, while ethanol administration induced cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in wild-type mice, it caused no such induction in SOD-/- mice. Unexpectedly, ethanol feeding significantly elevated total and mitochondrial levels of glutathione in SOD knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Conclusion: Ethanol-fed SOD-/- mice exhibited lower alcohol dehydrogenase activity and lack of CYP2E1 inducibility, thereby causing decreased ethanol metabolism compared with wild-type mice. These and other atypical responses to ethanol, including the absence of ethanol-induced steatosis and enhanced glutathione levels, appear to be linked to enhanced oxidative stress due to lack of antioxidant enzyme capacity.

AB - Background: Ethanol metabolism increases production of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide () in the liver, resulting in significant oxidative stress, which causes cellular damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide to less toxic intermediates, preventing accumulation. Because the absence of SOD would confer less resistance to oxidative stress, we determined whether damage to hepatic proteolytic systems was greater in SOD-/- than in SOD+/+ mice after chronic ethanol feeding. Methods: Female wild-type (SOD+/+) and Cu/Zn-SOD knockout (SOD-/-) mice were pair-fed ethanol and control liquid diets for 24 days, after which liver injury was assessed. Results: Ethanol-fed SOD-/- mice had 4-fold higher blood ethanol, 2.8-fold higher alanine aminotransferase levels, 20% higher liver weight, a 1.4-fold rise in hepatic protein levels, and 35 to 70% higher levels of lipid peroxides than corresponding wild-type mice. While wild-type mice exhibited fatty liver after ethanol administration, SOD-/- mice showed no evidence of ethanol-induced steatosis, although triglyceride levels were elevated in both groups of knockout mice. Ethanol administration caused no significant change in proteasome activity, but caused lysosomal leakage in livers of SOD-/- mice but not in wild-type mice. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was reduced by 50 to 60% in ethanol-fed SOD-/- mice compared with all other groups. Additionally, while ethanol administration induced cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in wild-type mice, it caused no such induction in SOD-/- mice. Unexpectedly, ethanol feeding significantly elevated total and mitochondrial levels of glutathione in SOD knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Conclusion: Ethanol-fed SOD-/- mice exhibited lower alcohol dehydrogenase activity and lack of CYP2E1 inducibility, thereby causing decreased ethanol metabolism compared with wild-type mice. These and other atypical responses to ethanol, including the absence of ethanol-induced steatosis and enhanced glutathione levels, appear to be linked to enhanced oxidative stress due to lack of antioxidant enzyme capacity.

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