Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of biochemical disease recurrence, metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and mortality after radical prostatectomy

Results from the SEARCH database

Daniel M. Moreira, William J. Aronson, Martha Kennedy Terris, Christopher J. Kane, Christopher L. Amling, Matthew R. Cooperberg, Paolo Boffetta, Stephen J. Freedland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND The current study was conducted to analyze the association between cigarette smoking and metastasis (the primary outcome) as well as time to biochemical disease recurrence (BCR), metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and prostate cancer-specific and overall mortality (secondary outcomes) after radical prostatectomy among men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital cohort. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed of 1450 subjects for whom smoking status was available from preoperative notes. Analysis of baseline characteristics by smoking status was performed using the chi-square and rank sum tests. The association between smoking status and time to the event was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier plots, the log-rank test, and Cox and competing risk models. RESULTS A total of 549 men (33%) men were active smokers and 1121 (67%) were nonsmokers at the time of surgery. Current smokers were younger and had a lower body mass index, higher prostate-specific antigen level, and more extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion (all P <.05). A total of 509 patients, 26 patients, 30 patients, 18 patients, and 217 patients, respectively, experienced BCR, metastasis, CRPC, prostate cancer-related death, and any-cause death over a median follow-up of 62 months, 75 months, 61 months, 78 months, and 78 months, respectively. After adjusting for preoperative features, active smoking was found to be associated with an increased risk of BCR (hazards ratio [HR], 1.25; P =.024), metastasis (HR, 2.64; P =.026), CRPC (HR, 2.62; P =.021), and overall mortality (HR, 2.14; P <.001). Similar results were noted after further adjustment for postoperative features, with the exception of BCR (HR, 1.10; P =.335), metastasis (HR, 2.51; P =.044), CRPC (HR, 2.67; P =.015), and death (HR, 2.03; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of metastasis. In addition, smoking was associated with a higher risk of BCR, CRPC, and overall mortality. If confirmed, these data suggest that smoking is a modifiable risk factor in patients with aggressive prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)197-204
Number of pages8
JournalCancer
Volume120
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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Castration
Prostatectomy
Prostatic Neoplasms
Smoking
Databases
Neoplasm Metastasis
Recurrence
Mortality
Cancer Care Facilities
Seminal Vesicles
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Nonparametric Statistics
Cause of Death
Body Mass Index

Keywords

  • disease-free survival
  • metastasis
  • mortality
  • prostate cancer
  • prostate-specific antigen
  • prostatectomy
  • smoking
  • tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of biochemical disease recurrence, metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and mortality after radical prostatectomy : Results from the SEARCH database. / Moreira, Daniel M.; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha Kennedy; Kane, Christopher J.; Amling, Christopher L.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Boffetta, Paolo; Freedland, Stephen J.

In: Cancer, Vol. 120, No. 2, 01.01.2014, p. 197-204.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Moreira, Daniel M. ; Aronson, William J. ; Terris, Martha Kennedy ; Kane, Christopher J. ; Amling, Christopher L. ; Cooperberg, Matthew R. ; Boffetta, Paolo ; Freedland, Stephen J. / Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of biochemical disease recurrence, metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and mortality after radical prostatectomy : Results from the SEARCH database. In: Cancer. 2014 ; Vol. 120, No. 2. pp. 197-204.
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title = "Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of biochemical disease recurrence, metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and mortality after radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH database",
abstract = "BACKGROUND The current study was conducted to analyze the association between cigarette smoking and metastasis (the primary outcome) as well as time to biochemical disease recurrence (BCR), metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and prostate cancer-specific and overall mortality (secondary outcomes) after radical prostatectomy among men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital cohort. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed of 1450 subjects for whom smoking status was available from preoperative notes. Analysis of baseline characteristics by smoking status was performed using the chi-square and rank sum tests. The association between smoking status and time to the event was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier plots, the log-rank test, and Cox and competing risk models. RESULTS A total of 549 men (33{\%}) men were active smokers and 1121 (67{\%}) were nonsmokers at the time of surgery. Current smokers were younger and had a lower body mass index, higher prostate-specific antigen level, and more extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion (all P <.05). A total of 509 patients, 26 patients, 30 patients, 18 patients, and 217 patients, respectively, experienced BCR, metastasis, CRPC, prostate cancer-related death, and any-cause death over a median follow-up of 62 months, 75 months, 61 months, 78 months, and 78 months, respectively. After adjusting for preoperative features, active smoking was found to be associated with an increased risk of BCR (hazards ratio [HR], 1.25; P =.024), metastasis (HR, 2.64; P =.026), CRPC (HR, 2.62; P =.021), and overall mortality (HR, 2.14; P <.001). Similar results were noted after further adjustment for postoperative features, with the exception of BCR (HR, 1.10; P =.335), metastasis (HR, 2.51; P =.044), CRPC (HR, 2.67; P =.015), and death (HR, 2.03; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of metastasis. In addition, smoking was associated with a higher risk of BCR, CRPC, and overall mortality. If confirmed, these data suggest that smoking is a modifiable risk factor in patients with aggressive prostate cancer.",
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T2 - Results from the SEARCH database

AU - Moreira, Daniel M.

AU - Aronson, William J.

AU - Terris, Martha Kennedy

AU - Kane, Christopher J.

AU - Amling, Christopher L.

AU - Cooperberg, Matthew R.

AU - Boffetta, Paolo

AU - Freedland, Stephen J.

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - BACKGROUND The current study was conducted to analyze the association between cigarette smoking and metastasis (the primary outcome) as well as time to biochemical disease recurrence (BCR), metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and prostate cancer-specific and overall mortality (secondary outcomes) after radical prostatectomy among men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital cohort. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed of 1450 subjects for whom smoking status was available from preoperative notes. Analysis of baseline characteristics by smoking status was performed using the chi-square and rank sum tests. The association between smoking status and time to the event was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier plots, the log-rank test, and Cox and competing risk models. RESULTS A total of 549 men (33%) men were active smokers and 1121 (67%) were nonsmokers at the time of surgery. Current smokers were younger and had a lower body mass index, higher prostate-specific antigen level, and more extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion (all P <.05). A total of 509 patients, 26 patients, 30 patients, 18 patients, and 217 patients, respectively, experienced BCR, metastasis, CRPC, prostate cancer-related death, and any-cause death over a median follow-up of 62 months, 75 months, 61 months, 78 months, and 78 months, respectively. After adjusting for preoperative features, active smoking was found to be associated with an increased risk of BCR (hazards ratio [HR], 1.25; P =.024), metastasis (HR, 2.64; P =.026), CRPC (HR, 2.62; P =.021), and overall mortality (HR, 2.14; P <.001). Similar results were noted after further adjustment for postoperative features, with the exception of BCR (HR, 1.10; P =.335), metastasis (HR, 2.51; P =.044), CRPC (HR, 2.67; P =.015), and death (HR, 2.03; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of metastasis. In addition, smoking was associated with a higher risk of BCR, CRPC, and overall mortality. If confirmed, these data suggest that smoking is a modifiable risk factor in patients with aggressive prostate cancer.

AB - BACKGROUND The current study was conducted to analyze the association between cigarette smoking and metastasis (the primary outcome) as well as time to biochemical disease recurrence (BCR), metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and prostate cancer-specific and overall mortality (secondary outcomes) after radical prostatectomy among men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital cohort. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed of 1450 subjects for whom smoking status was available from preoperative notes. Analysis of baseline characteristics by smoking status was performed using the chi-square and rank sum tests. The association between smoking status and time to the event was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier plots, the log-rank test, and Cox and competing risk models. RESULTS A total of 549 men (33%) men were active smokers and 1121 (67%) were nonsmokers at the time of surgery. Current smokers were younger and had a lower body mass index, higher prostate-specific antigen level, and more extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion (all P <.05). A total of 509 patients, 26 patients, 30 patients, 18 patients, and 217 patients, respectively, experienced BCR, metastasis, CRPC, prostate cancer-related death, and any-cause death over a median follow-up of 62 months, 75 months, 61 months, 78 months, and 78 months, respectively. After adjusting for preoperative features, active smoking was found to be associated with an increased risk of BCR (hazards ratio [HR], 1.25; P =.024), metastasis (HR, 2.64; P =.026), CRPC (HR, 2.62; P =.021), and overall mortality (HR, 2.14; P <.001). Similar results were noted after further adjustment for postoperative features, with the exception of BCR (HR, 1.10; P =.335), metastasis (HR, 2.51; P =.044), CRPC (HR, 2.67; P =.015), and death (HR, 2.03; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of metastasis. In addition, smoking was associated with a higher risk of BCR, CRPC, and overall mortality. If confirmed, these data suggest that smoking is a modifiable risk factor in patients with aggressive prostate cancer.

KW - disease-free survival

KW - metastasis

KW - mortality

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KW - prostate-specific antigen

KW - prostatectomy

KW - smoking

KW - tobacco

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