Introduction: Venetoclax (VEN), a selective BCL2 inhibitor, has single-agent activity in relapsed and refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and efficacy in lower intensity combinations for treatment-naïve elderly AML patients. VEN treatment combinations in R/R AML have not been previously reported. Methods: All R/R myeloid patients (including AML, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN)) treated with VEN combinations in the salvage setting were reviewed. Results: Forty-three patients with median age 68 (range, 25–83) were treated for AML (91%), MDS (5%), or BPDCN (5%). Most (n = 36, 84%) were ≥ salvage-2 treatment status, including prior hypomethylating agent (HMA) in 77%. In combination with VEN, most patients received HMA therapy (n = 31, 72%); eight (19%) received low-dose cytarabine (LDAC). Patients received a median of 2 treatment cycles (range, 1–4). Objective response was observed in 9 (21%) patients, including 2 complete responses (CR), 3 CRi, and 4 morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS). Median survival was 3.0 months (range, 0.5–8.0), and estimated 6-month survival was 24%. Responses were observed in five (24%) of 21 patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, 3 (27%) of 11 IDH1/2-mutant, and 4 (50%) of 8 RUNX1-mutated patients. Two (20%) of 10 TP53-mutated patients responded; both had concurrent RUNX1 mutations. Of the 3 (15%) responding patients with adverse cytogenetics, all had concurrent RUNX1 mutations. Conclusion: Low-intensity chemotherapy, including HMAs or LDAC, in combination with VEN is a viable salvage option, even in multiply relapsed/refractory patients with AML, MDS, and BPDCN. Notable responses were identified in patients with diploid/intermediate cytogenetics, RUNX1, and/or IDH1/2 mutations.
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