Objective Using stratified analyses, we examined the cost-effectiveness of the Otago Exercise Programme (OEP), from a health care system perspective, among older women and men who have previously fallen. Methods This study was a secondary stratified analysis (by women and men), of a 12-month prospective economic evaluation of a randomized clinical trial (OEP compared with usual care). Three hundred and forty four community-dwelling older adults (≥70; 172 OEP (110 women; 62 men), 172 usual care (119 women; 53 men)) who sustained a fall in the past 12 months and received a baseline assessment at the Vancouver Falls Prevention Clinic, Canada were included. A gender by OEP/usual care interaction was examined for the falls incidence rate ratio (IRR). Outcome measures stratified by gender included: falls IRR, incremental cost-per fall prevented (ICER), incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY, ICUR) gained, and mean total health care resource utilization costs. Results Men were frailer than women at baseline. Men incurred higher mean total healthcare costs $6794 (SD: $11906)). There was no significant gender by OEP/usual care interaction on falls IRR. The efficacy of the OEP did not vary by gender. The adjusted IRR for the OEP group demonstrated a 39% (IRR: 0.61, CI: 0.40–0.93) significant reduction in falls among men but not women (32% reduction (IRR: 0.69, CI: 0.47–1.02)). The ICER showed the OEP was effective in preventing falls and less costly for men, while it was costlier for women by $42. The ICUR showed the OEP did not impact quality of life. Conclusion Future studies should explore gender factors (i.e., health seeking behaviours, gender related frailty) that may explain observed variation in the cost-effectiveness of the OEP as a secondary falls prevention strategy.
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