Competitive balance in women’s collegiate cross country running

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Women started competing in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) cross country championships in 1981 and participation in Division 1 women’s cross country has increased by 174%. Using data covering 34 years of Division 1 championships we find some evidence that competitive balance in women’s races improved with increased participation although results are sensitive to how competitive balance is measured and how participation is counted. Violations of social choice preferences may explain the lack of robustness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)174-177
Number of pages4
JournalApplied Economics Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 6 2020


  • Competitive balance
  • NCAA
  • Title IX
  • running
  • social choice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics


Dive into the research topics of 'Competitive balance in women’s collegiate cross country running'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this