IMPORTANCE Surgical expertise demands technical and nontechnical skills. Traditionally, surgical trainees acquired these skills in the operating room; however, operative time for residents has decreased with duty hour restrictions. As in other professions, video analysis may help maximize the learning experience. OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a postoperative video-based coaching intervention for residents. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this mixed methods analysis, 10 senior (postgraduate year 4 and 5) residents were videorecorded operating with an attending surgeon at an academic tertiary care hospital. Each video formed the basis of a 1-hour one-on-one coaching session conducted by the operative attending; although a coaching framework was provided, participants determined the specific content collaboratively. Teaching points were identified in the operating room and the video-based coaching sessions; iterative inductive coding, followed by thematic analysis, was performed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Teaching points made in the operating roomwere compared with those in the video-based coaching sessions with respect to initiator, content, and teaching technique, adjusting for time. RESULTS Among 10 cases, surgeons made more teaching points per unit time (63.0 vs 102.7 per hour) while coaching. Teaching in the video-based coaching sessions was more resident centered; attendings were more inquisitive about residents' learning needs (3.30 vs 0.28, P = .04), and residents took more initiative to direct their education (27%[198 of 729 teaching points] vs 17%[331 of 1977 teaching points], P < .001). Surgeons also more frequently validated residents' experiences (8.40 vs 1.81, P < .01), and they tended to ask more questions to promote critical thinking (9.30 vs 3.32, P = .07) and set more learning goals (2.90 vs 0.28, P = .11). More complex topics, including intraoperative decision making (mean, 9.70 vs 2.77 instances per hour, P = .03) and failure to progress (mean, 1.20 vs 0.13 instances per hour, P = .04) were addressed, and they were more thoroughly developed and explored. Excerpts of dialogue are presented to illustrate these findings. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Video-based coaching is a novel and feasible modality for supplementing intraoperative learning. Objective evaluation demonstrates that video-based coachingmay be particularly useful for teaching higher-level concepts, such as decision making, and for individualizing instruction and feedback to each resident.
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