Convergent patterns of association between phenylalanine hydroxylase variants and schizophrenia in four independent samples

Michael E. Talkowski, Lora McClain, Trina Allen, L. Di Anne Bradford, Monica Calkins, Neil Edwards, Lyudmila Georgieva, Rodney Go, Ruben Gur, Raquel Gur, George Kirov, Kodavali Chowdari, Joseph Kwentus, Paul Lyons, Hader Mansour, Joseph Patrick McEvoy, Michael C. O'Donovan, Judith O'Jile, Michael J. Owen, Alberto Santos & 6 others Robert Savage, Draga Toncheva, Gerard Vockley, Joel Wood, Bernie Devlin, Vishwajit L. Nimgaonkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Recessive mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene predispose to phenylketonuria (PKU) in conjunction with dietary exposure to phenylalanine. Previous studies have suggested PAH variations could confer risk for schizophrenia, but comprehensive follow-up has not been reported. We analyzed 15 common PAH "tag" SNPs and three exonic variations that are rare in Caucasians but common in African-Americans among four independent samples (total n = 5,414). The samples included two US Caucasian cohorts (260 trios, 230 independent cases, 474 controls), Bulgarian families (659 trios), and an African-American sample (464 families, 401 controls). Analyses of both US Caucasian samples revealed associations with five SNPs; most notably the common allele (G) of rs1522305 from case-control analyses (z = 2.99, P = 0.006). This SNP was independently replicated in the Bulgarian cohort (z = 2.39, P = 0.015). A non -significant trend was also observed among African-American families (z = 1.39, P = 0.165), and combined analyses of all four samples were significant (rs1522305: χ2 = 23.28, 8 d.f., P = 0.003). Results for rs1522305 met our a priori criteria for statistical significance, namely an association that was robust to multiple testing correction in one sample, a replicated risk allele in multiple samples, and combined analyses that were nominally significant. Case-control results in African-Americans detected an association with L321L (P = 0.047, OR = 1.46). Our analyses suggest several associations at PAH, with consistent evidence for rs1522305. Further analyses, including additional variations and environmental influences such as phenylalanine exposure are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)560-569
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Volume150
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 5 2009

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Phenylalanine Hydroxylase
African Americans
Schizophrenia
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Phenylalanine
Alleles
Phenylketonurias
Mutation
Genes

Keywords

  • Phenylalanine hydroxylase
  • Polymorphism
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Convergent patterns of association between phenylalanine hydroxylase variants and schizophrenia in four independent samples. / Talkowski, Michael E.; McClain, Lora; Allen, Trina; Bradford, L. Di Anne; Calkins, Monica; Edwards, Neil; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Go, Rodney; Gur, Ruben; Gur, Raquel; Kirov, George; Chowdari, Kodavali; Kwentus, Joseph; Lyons, Paul; Mansour, Hader; McEvoy, Joseph Patrick; O'Donovan, Michael C.; O'Jile, Judith; Owen, Michael J.; Santos, Alberto; Savage, Robert; Toncheva, Draga; Vockley, Gerard; Wood, Joel; Devlin, Bernie; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

In: American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Vol. 150, No. 4, 05.06.2009, p. 560-569.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Talkowski, ME, McClain, L, Allen, T, Bradford, LDA, Calkins, M, Edwards, N, Georgieva, L, Go, R, Gur, R, Gur, R, Kirov, G, Chowdari, K, Kwentus, J, Lyons, P, Mansour, H, McEvoy, JP, O'Donovan, MC, O'Jile, J, Owen, MJ, Santos, A, Savage, R, Toncheva, D, Vockley, G, Wood, J, Devlin, B & Nimgaonkar, VL 2009, 'Convergent patterns of association between phenylalanine hydroxylase variants and schizophrenia in four independent samples', American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 560-569. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30862
Talkowski, Michael E. ; McClain, Lora ; Allen, Trina ; Bradford, L. Di Anne ; Calkins, Monica ; Edwards, Neil ; Georgieva, Lyudmila ; Go, Rodney ; Gur, Ruben ; Gur, Raquel ; Kirov, George ; Chowdari, Kodavali ; Kwentus, Joseph ; Lyons, Paul ; Mansour, Hader ; McEvoy, Joseph Patrick ; O'Donovan, Michael C. ; O'Jile, Judith ; Owen, Michael J. ; Santos, Alberto ; Savage, Robert ; Toncheva, Draga ; Vockley, Gerard ; Wood, Joel ; Devlin, Bernie ; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L. / Convergent patterns of association between phenylalanine hydroxylase variants and schizophrenia in four independent samples. In: American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 2009 ; Vol. 150, No. 4. pp. 560-569.
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AU - Calkins, Monica

AU - Edwards, Neil

AU - Georgieva, Lyudmila

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AU - Gur, Ruben

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AU - Kirov, George

AU - Chowdari, Kodavali

AU - Kwentus, Joseph

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AU - Owen, Michael J.

AU - Santos, Alberto

AU - Savage, Robert

AU - Toncheva, Draga

AU - Vockley, Gerard

AU - Wood, Joel

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