CpG islands

Their potential as biomarkers for cancer

Huidong Shi, Michael X. Wang, Charles W. Caldwell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In general, DNA methylation acts in concert with other epigenetic processes, including histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs, to shape the overall chromatin structure of the nucleus and potentially modify its functional state. Aberrant DNA methylation events can occur in a number of human diseases but we are only just beginning to appreciate the scope and magnitude of this process in human health. As one example, in contrast to normal cells, the cancer methylome is characterized by reciprocal hypermethylation of specific regulatory regions of genes along with an overall decrease in the quantity of 5-methylcytosine throughout the remainder of the genome. Currently, near genome-wide technologies are available and have been utilized to examine the extent of DNA methylation in discovery-based studies involving several physiological and disease states. Although early in the process, DNA methylation is being explored as a biomarker to be used in clinical practice for early detection of disease, tumor classification and for predicting disease outcome or recurrence. This perspective focuses on the current and future states of the use of DNA methylation biomarkers in disease diagnosis, prognosis and classification, with a particular emphasis on cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)519-531
Number of pages13
JournalExpert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Volume7
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

CpG Islands
DNA Methylation
Tumor Biomarkers
Histone Code
Biomarkers
Genetic Epigenesis
Genome
5-Methylcytosine
Neoplasms
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences
Regulator Genes
MicroRNAs
Chromatin
Early Diagnosis
Technology
Recurrence
Health

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • DNA methylation
  • Epigenetics
  • Human cancer
  • Methylation detection methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

Cite this

CpG islands : Their potential as biomarkers for cancer. / Shi, Huidong; Wang, Michael X.; Caldwell, Charles W.

In: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, Vol. 7, No. 5, 01.09.2007, p. 519-531.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Shi, Huidong ; Wang, Michael X. ; Caldwell, Charles W. / CpG islands : Their potential as biomarkers for cancer. In: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. 2007 ; Vol. 7, No. 5. pp. 519-531.
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