Critical role for perforin-, Fas/FasL-, and TNFR1-mediated cytotoxic pathways in down-regulation of antigen-specific T cells during persistent viral infection

S. Zhou, R. Ou, Lei Huang, Dimitrios Moskofidis

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Abstract

Viral persistence following infection with invasive strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can be achieved by selective down-regulation of virus-specific T lymphocytes. High viral burden in the onset of infection drives responding cells into functional unresponsiveness (anergy) that can be followed by their physical elimination. In this report, we studied down-regulation of the virus-specific CD8+-T-cell response during persistent infection of adult mice with LCMV, with emphasis on the role of perforin-, Fas/FasL-, or tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-mediated cytolysis in regulating T-cell homeostasis. The results reveal that the absence of perforin, Fas-ligand, or TNFR1 has no significant effect on the kinetics of proliferation and functional inactivation of virus-specific CD8+ T cells in the onset of chronic LCMV infection. However, these molecules play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of T cells, influencing the longevity of the virus-specific CD8+-T-cell population once it has become anergic. Thus, CD8+ T cells specific to the dominant LCMV NP396-404 epitope persist in an anergic state for at least 70 days in perforin-, FasL-, or TNFR1-deficient mice, but they were eliminated by day 30 in C57BL/6 controls. These effects were additive as shown by a deficit of apoptotic death of NP396-404 peptide-specific CD8+ T cells in mice lacking both perforin and TNFR1. This suggests a role for perforin-, FasL-, and TNFR1-mediated pathways in down-regulation of the antiviral T cell response during persistent viral infection by determining the fate of antigen-specific T cells. Moreover, virus-specific anergic CD8+ T cells in persistently infected C57BL/6 mice contain higher levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL than functionally intact T cells generated during acute LCMV infection. In the case of proapoptotic factors, Bax expression did not differ between T-cell populations and Bad was below the limit of detection in ali samples. As expression of the Bcl-2 family members controls susceptibility to apoptosis, this finding may provide a molecular basis for the survival of anergic cells under conditions of prolonged antigen stimulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)829-840
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume76
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2002

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Perforin
tumor necrosis factors
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors
Virus Diseases
Down-Regulation
T-lymphocytes
antigens
T-Lymphocytes
Antigens
receptors
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
infection
viruses
Viruses
mice
Infection
cytolysis
Virus Inactivation
Fas Ligand Protein
viral load

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

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title = "Critical role for perforin-, Fas/FasL-, and TNFR1-mediated cytotoxic pathways in down-regulation of antigen-specific T cells during persistent viral infection",
abstract = "Viral persistence following infection with invasive strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can be achieved by selective down-regulation of virus-specific T lymphocytes. High viral burden in the onset of infection drives responding cells into functional unresponsiveness (anergy) that can be followed by their physical elimination. In this report, we studied down-regulation of the virus-specific CD8+-T-cell response during persistent infection of adult mice with LCMV, with emphasis on the role of perforin-, Fas/FasL-, or tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-mediated cytolysis in regulating T-cell homeostasis. The results reveal that the absence of perforin, Fas-ligand, or TNFR1 has no significant effect on the kinetics of proliferation and functional inactivation of virus-specific CD8+ T cells in the onset of chronic LCMV infection. However, these molecules play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of T cells, influencing the longevity of the virus-specific CD8+-T-cell population once it has become anergic. Thus, CD8+ T cells specific to the dominant LCMV NP396-404 epitope persist in an anergic state for at least 70 days in perforin-, FasL-, or TNFR1-deficient mice, but they were eliminated by day 30 in C57BL/6 controls. These effects were additive as shown by a deficit of apoptotic death of NP396-404 peptide-specific CD8+ T cells in mice lacking both perforin and TNFR1. This suggests a role for perforin-, FasL-, and TNFR1-mediated pathways in down-regulation of the antiviral T cell response during persistent viral infection by determining the fate of antigen-specific T cells. Moreover, virus-specific anergic CD8+ T cells in persistently infected C57BL/6 mice contain higher levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL than functionally intact T cells generated during acute LCMV infection. In the case of proapoptotic factors, Bax expression did not differ between T-cell populations and Bad was below the limit of detection in ali samples. As expression of the Bcl-2 family members controls susceptibility to apoptosis, this finding may provide a molecular basis for the survival of anergic cells under conditions of prolonged antigen stimulation.",
author = "S. Zhou and R. Ou and Lei Huang and Dimitrios Moskofidis",
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T1 - Critical role for perforin-, Fas/FasL-, and TNFR1-mediated cytotoxic pathways in down-regulation of antigen-specific T cells during persistent viral infection

AU - Zhou, S.

AU - Ou, R.

AU - Huang, Lei

AU - Moskofidis, Dimitrios

PY - 2002/1/15

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N2 - Viral persistence following infection with invasive strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can be achieved by selective down-regulation of virus-specific T lymphocytes. High viral burden in the onset of infection drives responding cells into functional unresponsiveness (anergy) that can be followed by their physical elimination. In this report, we studied down-regulation of the virus-specific CD8+-T-cell response during persistent infection of adult mice with LCMV, with emphasis on the role of perforin-, Fas/FasL-, or tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-mediated cytolysis in regulating T-cell homeostasis. The results reveal that the absence of perforin, Fas-ligand, or TNFR1 has no significant effect on the kinetics of proliferation and functional inactivation of virus-specific CD8+ T cells in the onset of chronic LCMV infection. However, these molecules play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of T cells, influencing the longevity of the virus-specific CD8+-T-cell population once it has become anergic. Thus, CD8+ T cells specific to the dominant LCMV NP396-404 epitope persist in an anergic state for at least 70 days in perforin-, FasL-, or TNFR1-deficient mice, but they were eliminated by day 30 in C57BL/6 controls. These effects were additive as shown by a deficit of apoptotic death of NP396-404 peptide-specific CD8+ T cells in mice lacking both perforin and TNFR1. This suggests a role for perforin-, FasL-, and TNFR1-mediated pathways in down-regulation of the antiviral T cell response during persistent viral infection by determining the fate of antigen-specific T cells. Moreover, virus-specific anergic CD8+ T cells in persistently infected C57BL/6 mice contain higher levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL than functionally intact T cells generated during acute LCMV infection. In the case of proapoptotic factors, Bax expression did not differ between T-cell populations and Bad was below the limit of detection in ali samples. As expression of the Bcl-2 family members controls susceptibility to apoptosis, this finding may provide a molecular basis for the survival of anergic cells under conditions of prolonged antigen stimulation.

AB - Viral persistence following infection with invasive strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can be achieved by selective down-regulation of virus-specific T lymphocytes. High viral burden in the onset of infection drives responding cells into functional unresponsiveness (anergy) that can be followed by their physical elimination. In this report, we studied down-regulation of the virus-specific CD8+-T-cell response during persistent infection of adult mice with LCMV, with emphasis on the role of perforin-, Fas/FasL-, or tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-mediated cytolysis in regulating T-cell homeostasis. The results reveal that the absence of perforin, Fas-ligand, or TNFR1 has no significant effect on the kinetics of proliferation and functional inactivation of virus-specific CD8+ T cells in the onset of chronic LCMV infection. However, these molecules play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of T cells, influencing the longevity of the virus-specific CD8+-T-cell population once it has become anergic. Thus, CD8+ T cells specific to the dominant LCMV NP396-404 epitope persist in an anergic state for at least 70 days in perforin-, FasL-, or TNFR1-deficient mice, but they were eliminated by day 30 in C57BL/6 controls. These effects were additive as shown by a deficit of apoptotic death of NP396-404 peptide-specific CD8+ T cells in mice lacking both perforin and TNFR1. This suggests a role for perforin-, FasL-, and TNFR1-mediated pathways in down-regulation of the antiviral T cell response during persistent viral infection by determining the fate of antigen-specific T cells. Moreover, virus-specific anergic CD8+ T cells in persistently infected C57BL/6 mice contain higher levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL than functionally intact T cells generated during acute LCMV infection. In the case of proapoptotic factors, Bax expression did not differ between T-cell populations and Bad was below the limit of detection in ali samples. As expression of the Bcl-2 family members controls susceptibility to apoptosis, this finding may provide a molecular basis for the survival of anergic cells under conditions of prolonged antigen stimulation.

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