Cryptorchidism

Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose of review: Cryptorchidism remains a major cause of male infertility and can be associated with germ cell tumors. Recent reports regarding cause, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of this disorder continue to inform our understanding of this common and important problem. The frequency of the problem makes cryptorchidism an area where diagnostic knowledge is particularly important for healthcare professionals. Recent findings: The literature reviewed in this article approach cryptorchidism from multiple aspects. Reports regarding cause include studies of molecular genetics, endocrine chemical disruptors, the association with galactosemia, the association with low birth weight, and for acquired cryptorchidism, the relationship to infant feeding. In regard to treatment, the benefit of surgical repair at 9 months of age and compliance with recommendations is demonstrated. Further reports continue to document the cryptorchidism's negative impact on fertility, the higher risk of future gonadal malignancy and the lack of function of the unrepaired unilateral cryptorchid testis in adulthood. Management considerations such as the benefit of testicular biopsy at orchiopexy are also reviewed. It was concluded from an analysis of data from the Danish national registry that this can be a valid research tool for future evaluation of the outcome after cryptorchidism. Summary: Early recognition and surgery, before 1 year of age, remain the most important interventions to reduce the negative impact of both unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism. Further research is needed to better understand causes of cryptorchidism and the mechanisms by which it exerts its negative effects and to clarify outcome factors to direct the best clinical management of cryptorchidism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)210-216
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
Volume20
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013

Fingerprint

Cryptorchidism
Galactosemias
Orchiopexy
Endocrine Disruptors
Germ Cell and Embryonal Neoplasms
Male Infertility
Low Birth Weight Infant
Research
Fertility
Registries
Testis
Molecular Biology
Delivery of Health Care
Biopsy

Keywords

  • Cryptorchidism
  • Endocrine disrupting chemicals
  • Male fertility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Cryptorchidism. / Lee, Peter A.; Houk, Christopher P.

In: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, Vol. 20, No. 3, 01.06.2013, p. 210-216.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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