CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) stimulate innate and adaptive immunity by binding to TLR9 molecules. Paradoxically, expression of the immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is induced following i.v. CpG-ODN administration to mice. CpG-ODNs induced selective IDO expression by a minor population of splenic CD19+ dendritic cells (DCs) that did not express the plasmacytoid DC marker 120G8. Following CpG-ODN treatment, CD19 + DCs acquired potent IDO-dependent T cell suppressive functions. Signaling through IFN type I receptors was essential for IDO up-regulation, and CpG-ODNs induced selective activation of STAT-1 in CDl9+ DCs. Thus, CpG-ODNs delivered systemically at relatively high doses elicited potent T cell regulatory responses by acting on a discrete, minor population of splenic DCs. The ability of CpG-ODNs to induce both stimulatory and regulatory responses offers novel opportunities for using them as immunomodulatory reagents but may complicate therapeutic use of CpG-ODNs to stimulate antitumor immunity in cancer patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy