Endogenous cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) binds and activates STING to induce type I interferons. However, whether cGAMP plays any roles in regulating metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here we show that exogenous cGAMP ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic dysregulation and uniquely alters proinflammatory responses. In obese mice, treatment with cGAMP significantly decreases diet-induced proinflammatory responses in liver and adipose tissues and ameliorates metabolic dysregulation. Strikingly, cGAMP exerts cell-type-specific anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages, hepatocytes, and adipocytes, which is distinct from the effect of STING activation by DMXAA on enhancing proinflammatory responses. While enhancing insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes and adipocytes, cGAMP weakens the effects of glucagon on stimulating hepatocyte gluconeogenic enzyme expression and glucose output and blunts palmitate-induced hepatocyte fat deposition in an Akt-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest an essential role for cGAMP in linking innate immunity and metabolic homeostasis, indicating potential applications of cGAMP in treating obesity-associated inflammatory and metabolic diseases.
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