A disabling consequence of stroke is cognitive impairment, occurring in 12%–48% of patients, for which there is no therapy. A critical barrier is the lack of understanding of how post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) develops. While 70% of stroke victims present with comorbid diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, the limited use of comorbid disease models in preclinical research further contributes to this lack of progress. To this end, we used a translational model of diabetes to study the development of PSCI. In addition, we evaluated the application of compound 21 (C21), an angiotensin II Type 2 receptor agonist, for the treatment of PSCI by blinding the treatment assignment, setting strict inclusion criteria, and implementing a delayed administration time point. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) combination. Control and diabetic rats were subjected to 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham surgery. Adhesive removal task (ART) and two-trial Y-maze were utilized to test sensorimotor and cognitive function. Three days post-stroke, rats that met the inclusion criteria were administered C21 or vehicle in drinking water at a dose of 0.12 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Samples from freshly harvested brains were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Diabetes exacerbated the development of PSCI and increased inflammation and demyelination. Delayed administration of C21 3 days post-stroke reduced mortality and improved sensorimotor and cognitive deficits. It also reduced inflammation and demyelination through modulation of the M1:M2 ratio in the diabetic animals.
- Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor (AT2R)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine