Delayed reduction in hippocampal postsynaptic density protein-95 expression temporally correlates with cognitive dysfunction following controlled cortical impact in mice: Laboratory investigation

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Abstract

Object. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces significant neurological damage, including deficits in learning and memory, which contribute to a poor clinical prognosis. Treatment options to limit cognitive decline and promote neurological recovery are lacking, in part due to a poor understanding of the secondary or delayed processes that contribute to brain injury. In the present study, the authors characterized the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a key scaffolding protein implicated in excitatory synaptic signaling, after controlled cortical impacts in mice. Neurological injury, as assessed by the open-field activity test and the novel object recognition test, was compared with changes in PSD-95 expression. Methods. Adult male CD-1 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impacts to simulate moderate TBI in humans. The spatial and temporal expression of PSD-95 was analyzed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at various time points following injury and sham operations. Neurological assessments were performed to compare changes in PSD-95 with cognitive deficits. Results. A significant decrease in PSD-95 expression was observed in the ipsilateral hippocampus beginning on Day 7 postinjury. The loss of PSD-95 corresponded with a concomitant reduction in immunoreactivity for NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron-specific marker. Aside from the contused cortex, a significant loss of PSD-95 immunoreactivity was not observed in the cerebral cortex. The delayed loss of hippocampal PSD-95 directly correlated with the onset of behavioral deficits, suggesting a possible causative role for PSD-95 in behavioral abnormalities following head trauma. Conclusions. A delayed loss of hippocampal synapses was observed following head trauma in mice. These data may suggest a cellular mechanism to explain the delayed learning and memory deficits in humans after TBI and provide a potential framework for further testing to implicate PSD-95 as a clinically relevant therapeutic target.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1195-1201
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Volume113
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010

Fingerprint

Craniocerebral Trauma
Cerebral Cortex
Hippocampus
postsynaptic density proteins
Cognitive Dysfunction
Learning
Repression (Psychology)
Contusions
Memory Disorders
Wounds and Injuries
Synapses
Brain Injuries
Neurons
Traumatic Brain Injury
Proteins
Therapeutics
Recognition (Psychology)

Keywords

  • Glutamate
  • Hippocampus
  • Synaptic plasticity
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery

Cite this

@article{634bef42c95f4b2291ea67de991f9bc7,
title = "Delayed reduction in hippocampal postsynaptic density protein-95 expression temporally correlates with cognitive dysfunction following controlled cortical impact in mice: Laboratory investigation",
abstract = "Object. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces significant neurological damage, including deficits in learning and memory, which contribute to a poor clinical prognosis. Treatment options to limit cognitive decline and promote neurological recovery are lacking, in part due to a poor understanding of the secondary or delayed processes that contribute to brain injury. In the present study, the authors characterized the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a key scaffolding protein implicated in excitatory synaptic signaling, after controlled cortical impacts in mice. Neurological injury, as assessed by the open-field activity test and the novel object recognition test, was compared with changes in PSD-95 expression. Methods. Adult male CD-1 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impacts to simulate moderate TBI in humans. The spatial and temporal expression of PSD-95 was analyzed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at various time points following injury and sham operations. Neurological assessments were performed to compare changes in PSD-95 with cognitive deficits. Results. A significant decrease in PSD-95 expression was observed in the ipsilateral hippocampus beginning on Day 7 postinjury. The loss of PSD-95 corresponded with a concomitant reduction in immunoreactivity for NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron-specific marker. Aside from the contused cortex, a significant loss of PSD-95 immunoreactivity was not observed in the cerebral cortex. The delayed loss of hippocampal PSD-95 directly correlated with the onset of behavioral deficits, suggesting a possible causative role for PSD-95 in behavioral abnormalities following head trauma. Conclusions. A delayed loss of hippocampal synapses was observed following head trauma in mice. These data may suggest a cellular mechanism to explain the delayed learning and memory deficits in humans after TBI and provide a potential framework for further testing to implicate PSD-95 as a clinically relevant therapeutic target.",
keywords = "Glutamate, Hippocampus, Synaptic plasticity, Traumatic brain injury",
author = "Wakade, {Chandramohan G.} and {Sukumari Ramesh}, Sangeetha and Laird, {Melissa D.} and Dhandapani, {Krishnan Michael} and Vender, {John R}",
year = "2010",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3171/2010.3.JNS091212",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "113",
pages = "1195--1201",
journal = "Journal of Neurosurgery",
issn = "0022-3085",
publisher = "American Association of Neurological Surgeons",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Delayed reduction in hippocampal postsynaptic density protein-95 expression temporally correlates with cognitive dysfunction following controlled cortical impact in mice

T2 - Laboratory investigation

AU - Wakade, Chandramohan G.

AU - Sukumari Ramesh, Sangeetha

AU - Laird, Melissa D.

AU - Dhandapani, Krishnan Michael

AU - Vender, John R

PY - 2010/12/1

Y1 - 2010/12/1

N2 - Object. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces significant neurological damage, including deficits in learning and memory, which contribute to a poor clinical prognosis. Treatment options to limit cognitive decline and promote neurological recovery are lacking, in part due to a poor understanding of the secondary or delayed processes that contribute to brain injury. In the present study, the authors characterized the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a key scaffolding protein implicated in excitatory synaptic signaling, after controlled cortical impacts in mice. Neurological injury, as assessed by the open-field activity test and the novel object recognition test, was compared with changes in PSD-95 expression. Methods. Adult male CD-1 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impacts to simulate moderate TBI in humans. The spatial and temporal expression of PSD-95 was analyzed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at various time points following injury and sham operations. Neurological assessments were performed to compare changes in PSD-95 with cognitive deficits. Results. A significant decrease in PSD-95 expression was observed in the ipsilateral hippocampus beginning on Day 7 postinjury. The loss of PSD-95 corresponded with a concomitant reduction in immunoreactivity for NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron-specific marker. Aside from the contused cortex, a significant loss of PSD-95 immunoreactivity was not observed in the cerebral cortex. The delayed loss of hippocampal PSD-95 directly correlated with the onset of behavioral deficits, suggesting a possible causative role for PSD-95 in behavioral abnormalities following head trauma. Conclusions. A delayed loss of hippocampal synapses was observed following head trauma in mice. These data may suggest a cellular mechanism to explain the delayed learning and memory deficits in humans after TBI and provide a potential framework for further testing to implicate PSD-95 as a clinically relevant therapeutic target.

AB - Object. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces significant neurological damage, including deficits in learning and memory, which contribute to a poor clinical prognosis. Treatment options to limit cognitive decline and promote neurological recovery are lacking, in part due to a poor understanding of the secondary or delayed processes that contribute to brain injury. In the present study, the authors characterized the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a key scaffolding protein implicated in excitatory synaptic signaling, after controlled cortical impacts in mice. Neurological injury, as assessed by the open-field activity test and the novel object recognition test, was compared with changes in PSD-95 expression. Methods. Adult male CD-1 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impacts to simulate moderate TBI in humans. The spatial and temporal expression of PSD-95 was analyzed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at various time points following injury and sham operations. Neurological assessments were performed to compare changes in PSD-95 with cognitive deficits. Results. A significant decrease in PSD-95 expression was observed in the ipsilateral hippocampus beginning on Day 7 postinjury. The loss of PSD-95 corresponded with a concomitant reduction in immunoreactivity for NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron-specific marker. Aside from the contused cortex, a significant loss of PSD-95 immunoreactivity was not observed in the cerebral cortex. The delayed loss of hippocampal PSD-95 directly correlated with the onset of behavioral deficits, suggesting a possible causative role for PSD-95 in behavioral abnormalities following head trauma. Conclusions. A delayed loss of hippocampal synapses was observed following head trauma in mice. These data may suggest a cellular mechanism to explain the delayed learning and memory deficits in humans after TBI and provide a potential framework for further testing to implicate PSD-95 as a clinically relevant therapeutic target.

KW - Glutamate

KW - Hippocampus

KW - Synaptic plasticity

KW - Traumatic brain injury

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