The usefulness of two-dimensional color-Doppler flow-imaging (2D Doppler) in the detection, localization, and quantitation of bioprosthetic mitral valve regurgitation is uncertain. Mitral bioprostheses, before and after the creation of transvalvular (n = 33), paravalvular (n = 17), or combined (n = 23) defects, were mounted in a pulsed duplication system (flow rates, 2.5-6.5 l/min; pulse rate, 70 beats/min). An Aloka 880 2D Doppler system (Japan) was used to image the regurgitant jets in the simulated left atrial chamber, analogous to images obtained with transesophageal echocardiography. Jet area was corrected to an estimate of stroke volume: 2D Doppler measurements were divided by [(valve effective orifice area) x (continuous-wave Doppler-determined mean diastolic filling velocity)]/pulse rate. Regurgitant fraction and regurgitant volume were measured by an electromagnetic flow probe. 2D Doppler correctly identified the presence and location of paravalvular regurgitation. In transvalvular and combined transvalvular-paravalvular defects, there were six incorrect interpretations, all having transvalvular regurgitant volumes less than 4 ml/beat. In the presence of transvalvular regurgitation, jet area, length, and width correlated linearly with regurgitant volume (r = 0.82, 0.80, and 0.68, respectively; p < 0.0001) and regurgitant fraction (r = 0.62, 0.61, and 0.45, respectively; p < 0.001). Correlations with regurgitant fraction were improved when 2D Doppler measurements were corrected for stroke volume (r = 0.78, 0.79, and 0.67, respectively; p < 0.0001). Mitral bioprostheses with transvalvular defects were also studied at varying flow rates (3.2-7.5 l/min) and pulse rates (70, 90, and 110 beats/min). The correlation between jet area and regurgitation volume was improved with a second-order polynomial regression (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). Our conclusions are that 1) in this in vitro model analogous to transesophageal imaging, 2D Doppler accurately detects and localizes bioprosthetic mitral valve regurgitation; 2) in transvalvular bioprosthetic mitral valve regurgitation, 2D Doppler measurement of jet area has a curvilinear relation with regurgitant volume, and correlation with regurgitant fraction is improved with correction for stroke volume; and 3) in paravalvular bioprosthetic mitral valve regurgitation, correlations between 2D Doppler measurements and regurgitant volumes are weaker, possibly because of jet eccentricity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)