Development of Clinical Pharmacy Key Performance Indicators for Hospital Pharmacists Using a Modified Delphi Approach

Olavo Fernandes, Sean K. Gorman, Richard S. Slavik, William M. Semchuk, Steve Shalansky, Jean François Bussières, Douglas Doucette, Heather Bannerman, Jennifer Lo, Simone Shukla, Winnie W.Y. Chan, Natalie Benninger, Neil J. MacKinnon, Chaim M. Bell, Jeremy Slobodan, Catherine Lyder, Peter J. Zed, Kent Toombs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Key performance indicators (KPIs) are quantifiable measures of quality. There are no published, systematically derived clinical pharmacy KPIs (cpKPIs). Objective: A group of hospital pharmacists aimed to develop national cpKPIs to advance clinical pharmacy practice and improve patient care. Methods: A cpKPI working group established a cpKPI definition, 8 evidence-derived cpKPI critical activity areas, 26 candidate cpKPIs, and 11 cpKPI ideal attributes in addition to 1 overall consensus criterion. Twenty-six clinical pharmacists and hospital pharmacy leaders participated in an internet-based 3-round modified Delphi survey. Panelists rated 26 candidate cpKPIs using 11 cpKPI ideal attributes and 1 overall consensus criterion on a 9-point Likert scale. A meeting was facilitated between rounds 2 and 3 to debate the merits and wording of candidate cpKPIs. Consensus was reached if 75% or more of panelists assigned a score of 7 to 9 on the consensus criterion during the third Delphi round. Results: All panelists completed the 3 Delphi rounds, and 25/26 (96%) attended the meeting. Eight candidate cpKPIs met the consensus definition: (1) performing admission medication reconciliation (including best-possible medication history), (2) participating in interprofessional patient care rounds, (3) completing pharmaceutical care plans, (4) resolving drug therapy problems, (5) providing in-person disease and medication education to patients, (6) providing discharge patient medication education, (7) performing discharge medication reconciliation, and (8) providing bundled, proactive direct patient care activities. Conclusions: A Delphi panel of hospital pharmacists was successful in determining 8 consensus cpKPIs. Measurement and assessment of these cpKPIs will serve to advance clinical pharmacy practice and improve patient care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)656-669
Number of pages14
JournalAnnals of Pharmacotherapy
Volume49
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 8 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • clinical pharmacy
  • Delphi consensus
  • key performance indicators
  • process-of-care indicators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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