PERIODONTITIS IS A CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY disease characterized by a progression that is very much dependent on host response. The gingiva can be considered to be in a constant state of wounding (pathologic wounding by bacterial plaque) and a constant state of maintenance/repair. In this context, any metabolic disturbance in the host which compromises tissue repair/wound healing will exacerbate the progression of periodontitis. Diabetes presents an interesting example because two major complications of diabetes are delayed wound healing and periodontitis. Our previous studies indicate that delayed wound healing and periodontitis may be manifestations of a general systemic deficit in diabetes involving alteration of macrophage cytokine gene expression. The present study was designed to determine whether: 1) diabetes-induced metabolic alterations affect gingival cytokine levels; and 2) diabetes-induced metabolic alterations modify the gingival cytokine profile in periodontitis. Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 12/group) were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) into the tail vein to induce diabetes (defined by blood glucose levels > 250 mg/dl) or received the injection vehicle or no treatment as controls. Periodontitis was induced in additional groups of diabetic and control rats by gavage with Porphyromonas gingivalis A7436. After 90 days, serum glucose was analyzed to document diabetes; alveolar bone level was measured to document severity of periodontitis; gingiva was harvested circumferentially from the first and second molars; and cytokines in gingival homogenates were assayed by ELISA using commercial kits. Cytokine levels were expressed as mean ± SEM pg/μg protein. Diabetes alone did not alter the gingival cytokine profile for platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Periodontitis alone demonstrated a significant increase (P < 0.05) in levels of PDGF-B and IL-1β. Diabetes superimposed on periodontitis prevented these increases. Thus, diabetes-induced metabolic alterations do not affect gingival cytokine levels per se; however, they do alter the normal host response to periodontitis through blockage of periodontitis-induced increases in PDGF-B and IL-1β.
- Animal studies
- Diabetes mellitus/complications
- Gingiva/anatomy and histology
- Wound healing
ASJC Scopus subject areas