Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents

Haidong Zhu, Norman K. Pollock, Ishita Kotak, Bernard Gutin, Xiaoling Wang, Jigar Bhagatwala, Samip Parikh, Gregory A. Harshfield, Yanbin Dong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. RESULTS: The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodiumintake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps < .05). No relation was found between dietary sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mean sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e635-e642
JournalPediatrics
Volume133
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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Dietary Sodium
Adiposity
Sodium
Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat
Inflammation
Intra-Abdominal Fat
Adiponectin
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Leptin
C-Reactive Protein
Adipose Tissue
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Carbonated Beverages
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Skinfold Thickness
Waist Circumference
Energy Intake
African Americans
Linear Models
Fasting

Keywords

  • 24-hour dietary recall
  • Adiposity
  • Adolescents
  • Leptin
  • Sodium intake
  • TNF-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents. / Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K.; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A.; Dong, Yanbin.

In: Pediatrics, Vol. 133, No. 3, 01.01.2014, p. e635-e642.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhu, Haidong ; Pollock, Norman K. ; Kotak, Ishita ; Gutin, Bernard ; Wang, Xiaoling ; Bhagatwala, Jigar ; Parikh, Samip ; Harshfield, Gregory A. ; Dong, Yanbin. / Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents. In: Pediatrics. 2014 ; Vol. 133, No. 3. pp. e635-e642.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. RESULTS: The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodiumintake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps < .05). No relation was found between dietary sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mean sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.",
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T1 - Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents

AU - Zhu, Haidong

AU - Pollock, Norman K.

AU - Kotak, Ishita

AU - Gutin, Bernard

AU - Wang, Xiaoling

AU - Bhagatwala, Jigar

AU - Parikh, Samip

AU - Harshfield, Gregory A.

AU - Dong, Yanbin

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N2 - OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. RESULTS: The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodiumintake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps < .05). No relation was found between dietary sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mean sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

AB - OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. RESULTS: The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodiumintake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps < .05). No relation was found between dietary sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mean sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

KW - 24-hour dietary recall

KW - Adiposity

KW - Adolescents

KW - Leptin

KW - Sodium intake

KW - TNF-α

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