Direct evidence that initial oxidative stress triggered by preconditioning contributes to second window of protection by endogenous antioxidant enzyme in myocytes

Xiaobo Zhou, Xiaolin Zhai, Muhammad Ashraf

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166 Scopus citations


Background: We tested the hypothesis that late preconditioning is associated with increased antioxidant enzyme activity induced by initial oxidative stress. Methods and Results: Isolated rat myocytes were preconditioned either with two cycles of 5 minutes of anoxia and 5 minutes of reoxygenation or with exogenous superoxide anion (O2-) generated by reaction of xanthine oxidase with xanthine. Myocytes were allowed to recover for 60 minutes or 24 hours, after which they were subjected to 60 minutes of anoxia and 60 minutes of reoxygenation. After 60 minutes or 24 hours, the protection was evidenced by decreased O2- production, increased Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity, increased cell viability, decreased LDH release, reduced malondialdehyde formation, high-energy phosphate preservation, and improved cell morphology in preconditioned and O2-- treated myocytes. Immediately after treatment with O2- or repetitive, brief anoxia, O2- production was increased in myocytes. Longer anoxia resulted in loss of Mn-SOD activity in anoxic controls 24 hours later, whereas it was significantly increased in preconditioned and O2--treated myocytes, O2- production was inhibited in preconditioned and O2--treated myocytes. Myocytes treated with Mn-SOD during short, intermittent anoxia exhibited decreased activity of Mn-SOD and increased O2- production 24 hours later. Mn-SOD activity in late preconditioning was considerably higher than that in classic preconditioning. Conclusions: These results suggest that a burst of oxygen free radicals generated during the initial periods of brief, repetitive anoxia increases myocardial antioxidant activity 24 hours later and that it contributes to the late cardioprotective effect of preconditioning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1177-1184
Number of pages8
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 15 1996
Externally publishedYes



  • antioxidants
  • cells
  • free radicals
  • hypoxia
  • ischemia
  • myocardium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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