Sulfasalazine (SSZ) is a drug used in inflammatory bowel disease, whose precise mechanism of action remains to be clarified. Here, we report that incubation of Raw 264.7 cells with SSZ but not salicylates [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA), and 5-ASA] causes a mixed apoptotic and necrotic form of cell death. In contrast to its metabolites, sulfapyridine and 5-ASA, SSZ exposure in Raw 264.7 cells resulted in a threefold increase in ceramide generation, as well as a robust production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, inhibition of ceramide production by fumonisin B1 failed to attenuate cell death. Preincubation with catalase, cyclosporin A (CsA), and bongkrekic acid attenuated ROS production. When dead cells were quantified for apoptotic versus necrotic cell death, catalase and N-acetylcysteine reproducibly attenuated apoptosis, whereas CsA, in addition to reducing apoptosis, was observed to dramatically enhance necrosis. In conclusion, the cell-death response induced by SSZ in Raw 264.7 cells involves ROS in the apoptotic limb but is independent of ceramide formation.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Leukocyte Biology|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 1 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Cell Biology