Dose and time responses of vitamin D biomarkers to monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin d status

A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial

Jigar Bhagatwala, Haidong Zhu, Samip J. Parikh, De Huang Guo, Ishita Kotak, Ying Huang, Robyn Havens, Michael Pham, Eric Afari, Susan Kim, Christopher W Cutler, Norman K. Pollock, Yutong Dong, Anas Raed, Yanbin Dong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: A critical need exists to better understand the physiological sequel of vitamin D supplementation in obese individuals and African Americans. The aim was to comprehensively evaluate dose- and time-responses of a panel of vitamin D biomarkers to vitamin D supplements in this population. Methods: We conducted a 16-week randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight/obese African Americans (age 13-45 years, 84 % females) with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ≤20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to receive a supervised monthly oral vitamin D3 of 18,000 IU (~600 IU/day, n = 17), 60,000 IU (~2000 IU/day, n = 18), 120,000 IU (~4000 IU/day, n = 18), or placebo (n = 17). Results: There were significant dose- and time-responses of circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), but not fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), phosphorus and urine calcium to the vitamin D supplements. The mean 25(OH)D concentrations in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups reached ≥30 ng/mL as early as 8-weeks and remained at similar level at 16-weeks. The increase of 25(OH)D was significantly higher in the 4000 IU group than all the other groups at 8-weeks. The increase of 1,25(OH)2D was significantly higher in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups than the placebo at 8-weeks. Only the 4000 IU compared to the placebo significantly reduced iPTH at 8- and 16-weeks. Conclusions: Our RCT, for the first time, comprehensively evaluated time- and dose- responses of vitamin D supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin D status. Circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and iPTH, but not FGF-23, phosphorus and urine calcium, respond to vitamin D supplementation in a time- and dose-response manner. By monthly dosing, 2000 IU appears to be sufficient in achieving a 25(OH)D level of 30 ng/mL in this population. However, importantly, 4000 IU, rather than 2000 IU, seems to suppress iPTH. If replicated, these data might be informative in optimizing vitamin D status and providing individualized dosing recommendation in overweight/obese African Americans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number27
JournalBMC Obesity
Volume2
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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Cholecalciferol
Vitamin D
Vitamins
African Americans
Randomized Controlled Trials
Biomarkers
Placebos
Parathyroid Hormone
Phosphorus
Urine
Calcium
Controlled Clinical Trials
Population

Keywords

  • 4000 IU vitamin D
  • African Americans
  • Dose-response vitamin D
  • Monthly vitamin D
  • Overweight/obese

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Dose and time responses of vitamin D biomarkers to monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin d status : A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial. / Bhagatwala, Jigar; Zhu, Haidong; Parikh, Samip J.; Guo, De Huang; Kotak, Ishita; Huang, Ying; Havens, Robyn; Pham, Michael; Afari, Eric; Kim, Susan; Cutler, Christopher W; Pollock, Norman K.; Dong, Yutong; Raed, Anas; Dong, Yanbin.

In: BMC Obesity, Vol. 2, No. 1, 27, 01.01.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bhagatwala, Jigar ; Zhu, Haidong ; Parikh, Samip J. ; Guo, De Huang ; Kotak, Ishita ; Huang, Ying ; Havens, Robyn ; Pham, Michael ; Afari, Eric ; Kim, Susan ; Cutler, Christopher W ; Pollock, Norman K. ; Dong, Yutong ; Raed, Anas ; Dong, Yanbin. / Dose and time responses of vitamin D biomarkers to monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin d status : A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial. In: BMC Obesity. 2015 ; Vol. 2, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: A critical need exists to better understand the physiological sequel of vitamin D supplementation in obese individuals and African Americans. The aim was to comprehensively evaluate dose- and time-responses of a panel of vitamin D biomarkers to vitamin D supplements in this population. Methods: We conducted a 16-week randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight/obese African Americans (age 13-45 years, 84 {\%} females) with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ≤20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to receive a supervised monthly oral vitamin D3 of 18,000 IU (~600 IU/day, n = 17), 60,000 IU (~2000 IU/day, n = 18), 120,000 IU (~4000 IU/day, n = 18), or placebo (n = 17). Results: There were significant dose- and time-responses of circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), but not fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), phosphorus and urine calcium to the vitamin D supplements. The mean 25(OH)D concentrations in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups reached ≥30 ng/mL as early as 8-weeks and remained at similar level at 16-weeks. The increase of 25(OH)D was significantly higher in the 4000 IU group than all the other groups at 8-weeks. The increase of 1,25(OH)2D was significantly higher in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups than the placebo at 8-weeks. Only the 4000 IU compared to the placebo significantly reduced iPTH at 8- and 16-weeks. Conclusions: Our RCT, for the first time, comprehensively evaluated time- and dose- responses of vitamin D supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin D status. Circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and iPTH, but not FGF-23, phosphorus and urine calcium, respond to vitamin D supplementation in a time- and dose-response manner. By monthly dosing, 2000 IU appears to be sufficient in achieving a 25(OH)D level of 30 ng/mL in this population. However, importantly, 4000 IU, rather than 2000 IU, seems to suppress iPTH. If replicated, these data might be informative in optimizing vitamin D status and providing individualized dosing recommendation in overweight/obese African Americans.",
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T1 - Dose and time responses of vitamin D biomarkers to monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin d status

T2 - A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial

AU - Bhagatwala, Jigar

AU - Zhu, Haidong

AU - Parikh, Samip J.

AU - Guo, De Huang

AU - Kotak, Ishita

AU - Huang, Ying

AU - Havens, Robyn

AU - Pham, Michael

AU - Afari, Eric

AU - Kim, Susan

AU - Cutler, Christopher W

AU - Pollock, Norman K.

AU - Dong, Yutong

AU - Raed, Anas

AU - Dong, Yanbin

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - Background: A critical need exists to better understand the physiological sequel of vitamin D supplementation in obese individuals and African Americans. The aim was to comprehensively evaluate dose- and time-responses of a panel of vitamin D biomarkers to vitamin D supplements in this population. Methods: We conducted a 16-week randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight/obese African Americans (age 13-45 years, 84 % females) with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ≤20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to receive a supervised monthly oral vitamin D3 of 18,000 IU (~600 IU/day, n = 17), 60,000 IU (~2000 IU/day, n = 18), 120,000 IU (~4000 IU/day, n = 18), or placebo (n = 17). Results: There were significant dose- and time-responses of circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), but not fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), phosphorus and urine calcium to the vitamin D supplements. The mean 25(OH)D concentrations in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups reached ≥30 ng/mL as early as 8-weeks and remained at similar level at 16-weeks. The increase of 25(OH)D was significantly higher in the 4000 IU group than all the other groups at 8-weeks. The increase of 1,25(OH)2D was significantly higher in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups than the placebo at 8-weeks. Only the 4000 IU compared to the placebo significantly reduced iPTH at 8- and 16-weeks. Conclusions: Our RCT, for the first time, comprehensively evaluated time- and dose- responses of vitamin D supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin D status. Circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and iPTH, but not FGF-23, phosphorus and urine calcium, respond to vitamin D supplementation in a time- and dose-response manner. By monthly dosing, 2000 IU appears to be sufficient in achieving a 25(OH)D level of 30 ng/mL in this population. However, importantly, 4000 IU, rather than 2000 IU, seems to suppress iPTH. If replicated, these data might be informative in optimizing vitamin D status and providing individualized dosing recommendation in overweight/obese African Americans.

AB - Background: A critical need exists to better understand the physiological sequel of vitamin D supplementation in obese individuals and African Americans. The aim was to comprehensively evaluate dose- and time-responses of a panel of vitamin D biomarkers to vitamin D supplements in this population. Methods: We conducted a 16-week randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight/obese African Americans (age 13-45 years, 84 % females) with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ≤20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to receive a supervised monthly oral vitamin D3 of 18,000 IU (~600 IU/day, n = 17), 60,000 IU (~2000 IU/day, n = 18), 120,000 IU (~4000 IU/day, n = 18), or placebo (n = 17). Results: There were significant dose- and time-responses of circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), but not fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), phosphorus and urine calcium to the vitamin D supplements. The mean 25(OH)D concentrations in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups reached ≥30 ng/mL as early as 8-weeks and remained at similar level at 16-weeks. The increase of 25(OH)D was significantly higher in the 4000 IU group than all the other groups at 8-weeks. The increase of 1,25(OH)2D was significantly higher in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups than the placebo at 8-weeks. Only the 4000 IU compared to the placebo significantly reduced iPTH at 8- and 16-weeks. Conclusions: Our RCT, for the first time, comprehensively evaluated time- and dose- responses of vitamin D supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin D status. Circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and iPTH, but not FGF-23, phosphorus and urine calcium, respond to vitamin D supplementation in a time- and dose-response manner. By monthly dosing, 2000 IU appears to be sufficient in achieving a 25(OH)D level of 30 ng/mL in this population. However, importantly, 4000 IU, rather than 2000 IU, seems to suppress iPTH. If replicated, these data might be informative in optimizing vitamin D status and providing individualized dosing recommendation in overweight/obese African Americans.

KW - 4000 IU vitamin D

KW - African Americans

KW - Dose-response vitamin D

KW - Monthly vitamin D

KW - Overweight/obese

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