Dose–response, therapeutic time-window and tPA-combinatorial efficacy of compound 21: A randomized, blinded preclinical trial in a rat model of thromboembolic stroke

Tauheed Ishrat, Abdelrahman Y. Fouda, Bindu Pillai, Wael Eldahshan, Heba Ahmed, Jennifer L. Waller, Adviye Ergul, Susan C. Fagan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


The aim of this translational, randomized, controlled, blinded preclinical trial was to determine the effect of compound 21 (C21) in embolic stroke. Rats were subjected to embolic-middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO). They received C21 (0.01, 0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg/d) or saline (orally) for five days, with the first-dose given IV at 3 h post-eMCAO. For the time-window study, the optimal-dose of C21 was initiated at 3, 6 or 24 h post-eMCAO and continued for five days. For the combinatorial study, animals received IV-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at either 2 or 4 h, with IV-C21 (0.01 mg/kg) or saline at 3 h post-eMCAO and daily thereafter for five days. After performing the behavior tests, brains were collected for analyses. The dose–response study showed significant motor improvements with the lowest-dose (0.01 mg/kg) of C21. In the time-window study, this same dose resulted in improvements when given 6 h and 24 h post-eMCAO. Moreover, C21-treated animals performed better on the novel object recognition test. Neither the single treatment with C21 or tPA (4 h) nor the combination therapy was effective in reducing the hemorrhage or infarct size, although C21 alone lowered sensorimotor deficit scores post-eMCAO. Future studies should focus on the long-term cognitive benefits of C21, rather than acute neuroprotection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1635-1647
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019



  • Compound C21
  • embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion
  • functional outcome
  • ischemic stroke
  • tissue plasminogen activator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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