Effect of alcohol consumption on clinical attachment loss progression in an urban population from south Brazil: A 5-year longitudinal study

Marcius C. Wagner, Alex N. Haas, Rui V. Oppermann, Cassiano K. Rosing, Jasim M. Albandar, Cristiano Susin

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5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of alcohol consumption on clinical attachment loss (AL) progression over a period of 5 years. Methods: A multistage probability sampling strategy was used to draw a representative sample of the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Five hundred thirty-two individuals (209 males and 293 females) aged 18 to 65 years at baseline with no medical history of diabetes and at least six teeth were included in this analysis. Full-mouth periodontal examinations with six sites per tooth were conducted at baseline and after 5 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline by asking participants about the usual number of drinks consumed in a week. Four categories of alcohol consumption were defined: 1) non-drinker; 2) ≤1 glass/week; 3) >1 glass/week and ≤1 glass/day; and 4) >1 glass/day. Individuals showing at least two teeth with proximal (clinical AL) progression ≥ 3 mm over 5 years were classified as having disease progression. Multiple Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and body mass index were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Overall, individuals who consumed >1 glass/day had 30% higher risk for clinical AL progression (RR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.58) than non-drinkers. Among males, risk of clinical AL progression for individuals drinking >1 glass/day was 34% higher than non-drinkers (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.64). Never-smoker males drinking ≤1 glass/week had significantly lower risk for clinical AL progression than non-drinkers (RR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.89), whereas those drinking >1 glass/day had significantly higher risk (RR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.99). Among females, no association between alcohol consumption and clinical AL progression was observed. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption increased the risk of clinical AL progression, and this effect was more pronounced in males. Low dosages (≤1.37 g of alcohol/day) of alcohol consumption may be beneficial to prevent periodontal disease progression in males. The impact of alcohol cessation initiatives on periodontal health should be evaluated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1271-1280
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of periodontology
Volume88
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2017

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Keywords

  • Alcohol drinking
  • Epidemiology
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Periodontitis
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics

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