Dentin bonding agents (DBAs) have been proposed as substitutes for amalgam as root-end filling materials. The current study tested the hypothesis that certain components of DBAs could alter the secretion of cytokines from macrophages. Such alteration would likely be undesirable for healing of the periapical tissues. Human THP-1 macrophages were exposed to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 4-methacryloxyethyl trimelliate anhydride, bisphenol-gycidylmethacrylate, and urethane dimethacrylate. The secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured with or without challenge by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that all DBA components completely suppressed LPS-induced IL-1β and TNF-α secretion at concentrations that suppressed mitochondrial activity by 50%. In addition, 4-methacryloxyethyl trimelliate anhydride induced secretion of IL-1β, but not TNF-α, without the LPS challenge. These results indicate that DBA components may alter normal macrophage-directed inflammatory responses if the macrophages are exposed to sufficiently high concentrations of these components.
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