Effect of solvent type and content on monomer conversion of a model resin system as a thin film

Robert G. Holmes, Frederick Rueggeberg, Richard S Callan, Wyatt Franklin Caughman, Daniel C.N. Chan, David Henry Pashley, Stephen Warwick Looney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of solvent concentration on the degree of conversion of a model photo-activated resin formulation when placed as a thin film in ambient air. Methods: A photo-activated co-monomer mixture (ethoxylated bis-GMA/TEGDMA) (Bisco Inc.) was diluted into six concentrations (from 1.0 to 13.0 M) with either acetone or ethanol. A controlled volume of diluted, uncured resin was placed on the horizontal surface of an attenuated reflectance unit and the infrared (IR) spectrum obtained. A light emitting diode light-curing source (Bluephase, Ivoclar/Vivadent) then immediately irradiated the specimen for 10 s (n = 5). Five minutes after exposure, IR spectra of the cured material were obtained, and monomer conversions were calculated using standard methods that monitored changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic C{double bond, long}C absorbance ratios in the uncured and cured states. Results: In the acetone/model resin system, maximum conversion occurred with 2.5-5.0 M solvent. In the ethanol/model resin system, conversion peaked at 2.5 M solvent. Above 5.0 M solvent, conversion values declined rapidly for both solvents. A 13.0-M solution resulted in near 0% conversion for both solvents. At 2.5 and 5.0 M acetone, conversions exceeded those of equivalent concentrations of the ethanol-based system. Conclusions: For both an acetone- and ethanol-solvated model resin system, conversion did not immediately decrease with addition of solvent, but instead increased over that of the model resin alone. At higher solvent content (greater than 2.5 M ethanol and 5.0 M acetone), conversion rapidly declined, with ethanol causing less conversion at equal-molar solvent concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1506-1512
Number of pages7
JournalDental Materials
Volume23
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007

Fingerprint

Resins
Monomers
Thin films
Acetone
Ethanol
Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate
Infrared radiation
Light
Light emitting diodes
Light sources
Curing
Air

Keywords

  • Acetone
  • Ethanol
  • Polymerization
  • Solvent evaporation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Effect of solvent type and content on monomer conversion of a model resin system as a thin film. / Holmes, Robert G.; Rueggeberg, Frederick; Callan, Richard S; Caughman, Wyatt Franklin; Chan, Daniel C.N.; Pashley, David Henry; Looney, Stephen Warwick.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 23, No. 12, 01.12.2007, p. 1506-1512.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of solvent concentration on the degree of conversion of a model photo-activated resin formulation when placed as a thin film in ambient air. Methods: A photo-activated co-monomer mixture (ethoxylated bis-GMA/TEGDMA) (Bisco Inc.) was diluted into six concentrations (from 1.0 to 13.0 M) with either acetone or ethanol. A controlled volume of diluted, uncured resin was placed on the horizontal surface of an attenuated reflectance unit and the infrared (IR) spectrum obtained. A light emitting diode light-curing source (Bluephase, Ivoclar/Vivadent) then immediately irradiated the specimen for 10 s (n = 5). Five minutes after exposure, IR spectra of the cured material were obtained, and monomer conversions were calculated using standard methods that monitored changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic C{double bond, long}C absorbance ratios in the uncured and cured states. Results: In the acetone/model resin system, maximum conversion occurred with 2.5-5.0 M solvent. In the ethanol/model resin system, conversion peaked at 2.5 M solvent. Above 5.0 M solvent, conversion values declined rapidly for both solvents. A 13.0-M solution resulted in near 0{\%} conversion for both solvents. At 2.5 and 5.0 M acetone, conversions exceeded those of equivalent concentrations of the ethanol-based system. Conclusions: For both an acetone- and ethanol-solvated model resin system, conversion did not immediately decrease with addition of solvent, but instead increased over that of the model resin alone. At higher solvent content (greater than 2.5 M ethanol and 5.0 M acetone), conversion rapidly declined, with ethanol causing less conversion at equal-molar solvent concentrations.",
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T1 - Effect of solvent type and content on monomer conversion of a model resin system as a thin film

AU - Holmes, Robert G.

AU - Rueggeberg, Frederick

AU - Callan, Richard S

AU - Caughman, Wyatt Franklin

AU - Chan, Daniel C.N.

AU - Pashley, David Henry

AU - Looney, Stephen Warwick

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N2 - Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of solvent concentration on the degree of conversion of a model photo-activated resin formulation when placed as a thin film in ambient air. Methods: A photo-activated co-monomer mixture (ethoxylated bis-GMA/TEGDMA) (Bisco Inc.) was diluted into six concentrations (from 1.0 to 13.0 M) with either acetone or ethanol. A controlled volume of diluted, uncured resin was placed on the horizontal surface of an attenuated reflectance unit and the infrared (IR) spectrum obtained. A light emitting diode light-curing source (Bluephase, Ivoclar/Vivadent) then immediately irradiated the specimen for 10 s (n = 5). Five minutes after exposure, IR spectra of the cured material were obtained, and monomer conversions were calculated using standard methods that monitored changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic C{double bond, long}C absorbance ratios in the uncured and cured states. Results: In the acetone/model resin system, maximum conversion occurred with 2.5-5.0 M solvent. In the ethanol/model resin system, conversion peaked at 2.5 M solvent. Above 5.0 M solvent, conversion values declined rapidly for both solvents. A 13.0-M solution resulted in near 0% conversion for both solvents. At 2.5 and 5.0 M acetone, conversions exceeded those of equivalent concentrations of the ethanol-based system. Conclusions: For both an acetone- and ethanol-solvated model resin system, conversion did not immediately decrease with addition of solvent, but instead increased over that of the model resin alone. At higher solvent content (greater than 2.5 M ethanol and 5.0 M acetone), conversion rapidly declined, with ethanol causing less conversion at equal-molar solvent concentrations.

AB - Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of solvent concentration on the degree of conversion of a model photo-activated resin formulation when placed as a thin film in ambient air. Methods: A photo-activated co-monomer mixture (ethoxylated bis-GMA/TEGDMA) (Bisco Inc.) was diluted into six concentrations (from 1.0 to 13.0 M) with either acetone or ethanol. A controlled volume of diluted, uncured resin was placed on the horizontal surface of an attenuated reflectance unit and the infrared (IR) spectrum obtained. A light emitting diode light-curing source (Bluephase, Ivoclar/Vivadent) then immediately irradiated the specimen for 10 s (n = 5). Five minutes after exposure, IR spectra of the cured material were obtained, and monomer conversions were calculated using standard methods that monitored changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic C{double bond, long}C absorbance ratios in the uncured and cured states. Results: In the acetone/model resin system, maximum conversion occurred with 2.5-5.0 M solvent. In the ethanol/model resin system, conversion peaked at 2.5 M solvent. Above 5.0 M solvent, conversion values declined rapidly for both solvents. A 13.0-M solution resulted in near 0% conversion for both solvents. At 2.5 and 5.0 M acetone, conversions exceeded those of equivalent concentrations of the ethanol-based system. Conclusions: For both an acetone- and ethanol-solvated model resin system, conversion did not immediately decrease with addition of solvent, but instead increased over that of the model resin alone. At higher solvent content (greater than 2.5 M ethanol and 5.0 M acetone), conversion rapidly declined, with ethanol causing less conversion at equal-molar solvent concentrations.

KW - Acetone

KW - Ethanol

KW - Polymerization

KW - Solvent evaporation

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